Coffee varieties: Centroamericano – Helena coffee processing & export: Centroamericano is an F1 hybrid of rust-resistant T 5296 and Landrace Ethiopia Rume Sudan with a very high yield with very good quality potential. Well adapted for agroforestry.
For F1 hybrid Arabica varieties such as Centroamericano , the seed obtained from the hybrid will not have the same characteristics as the parent plant. This is called “discrimination”. This means that the seedling is likely to lose yield, disease resistance, quality or other agronomic performance characteristics. Seeds should only be reproduced through clonal propagation and purchased from trusted nurseries.
Genetics of Centroamericano
Centroamericano is the result of a first-generation (F1) crossbreeding derived from rust-resistant T5296 (of the Sarchimor cultivar group) and the Ethiopian Landrace Rume Sudan (an indigenous Arabica variety, in Ethiopia). Centroamericano is resistant to coffee leaf rust, giving extremely high yields (in variety assessments it shows a 22–47% increase in yield compared to standard Central American varieties). Centroamericano has also been shown to have exceptional cup quality potential when well fertilized at high altitudes. It was released in 2010 to farmers in Central America.
Cultivation characteristics Centroamericano
Centroamericano has been created by a consortium that includes the French research institute CIRAD, a regional network of national coffee institutes in Central America (PROMECAFE), and a coffee bank in Costa Rica (CATIE). The F1 hybrids in Central America are part of breeders’ efforts to increase the genetic diversity of the varieties in the region as traditional varieties here are severely genetically limited.
Usually, the selected F1 hybrid parents are genetically distant from each other; This spacing maximizes hybrid vigor, which translates into high yields and overall vigor (e.g., resistance to frost), without sacrificing flavor quality or disease resistance. There are only a handful of F1 hybrid coffee varieties in the world, most developed in the last 10 years, and recently sold commercially to farmers.