Consider fertilizing your coffee when it rains: The coffee Robusta starts to overgrow during the rain, and the coffee tree’s branches and buds also expand quickly. So that the coffee tree may produce quality fruit and build a strong reserve frame for the following year, it is vital to give appropriate nutrients and control light to suit the physiological situation of the coffee tree. Following are coffee gardens’ leading care and fertilizing procedures throughout the wet season.
1. Timely tree pruning for shadow
The foundation of the coffee gardens has to be maintained. Temporary shade trees need to be placed between two rows of coffee trees. Cut the yellow-flowered cassia at 50 to 70 cm height for optimal regeneration. This row of yellow blossoms must be pruned 2-3 times during a rainy season so that the coffee does not compete with them for light. The cabinet is brought to the foot of the coffee tree by the branches and leaves of golden blossoms.
In commercial coffee gardens with shade trees like acacias and black cassava, it’s essential to prune the trees in good time at the start of the rainy season to improve the light for the garden and aid in the emergence of the coffee branches and leaves. Rain is dense and strong, not frail. Weeds are severely cut at the start of the rainy season, leaving only a few tiny sap-sucking branches for the shade trees. Don’t destroy or crush coffee branches when weeds are cutting shade trees.
Keep the branches and leaves in the coffee garden that are shaded by the algae trimmed down for a while to allow the leaves to fall and create green manure for the garden, then remove the large branches to make moving around and caring for the coffee garden easier. Take drugs. To keep the coffee garden from being taken over by the police during the rainy season, weeds are clipped 2-3 times depending on how quickly the leaves and branches of the shade tree grow. One month before the rainy season ends, the last pruning.
2. Overshooting coffee tree distances
In the wet season, overshoots can occur extremely quickly. Therefore it’s essential to take timely action. The shoots typically happen once a month. When overshooting, clip the toothpicks because the slimy branches tend to develop excessively where the burning branches used to be. There should be no more than three reserve branches at each burning branch position. To allow light to reach the coffee canopy, pay attention to the secondary branches that develop thickly at the top of the canopy.
3. To prepare a trench for green pressing, plough the ground and cut rows of green presses
During the rainy season, from roughly 20 days after the first chemical fertilizer application until the conclusion of the rainy season, 1.5 to 2 months, the job of building tanks or preparing rows can be done. For each coffee tree, dig 1-2 trenches that are 30 cm deep, 1 m long, and 20–25 cm wide along the perimeter of the coffee tub. Place all weeds on the property and any manure in the trench, then fill it with soil.
To minimize damage to the coffee roots, you can also use a winch plough to plough the rows between two rows of coffee, going 50 cm deep and alternating between ploughing one row, tossing one row, and pushing the following year. The plough trench is where manure is applied, and the plot’s weeds are greened, much like the trench excavated in the tank’s edge. The use of a winch is efficient since it eliminates the need for physical labour, allows for deep ploughing, completes the task fast, and results in fewer broken coffee leaves because the plough is outside the lot and can only be controlled by the operator.
4. Fertilizing and weeding
Keep the grass cut along the coffee row, so the coffee does not have to compete with weeds. After cleaning and weeding, fertilize coffee. The following are the fertilizer types and dosages:
– Organic fertilizer: once every two to three years, apply 20 to 30 m3 of organic fertilizer per hectare, or apply microbial organic fertilizer at a rate of 1 to 2 tons per hectare. Apply organic fertilizers while creating trenches for green pressing in coffee gardens.
– Lime powder: sprinkle uniformly throughout the land, make as much contact with the soil as possible, and fertilize 300–400 kg/ha annually. There is no need to fill the ground.
– Synthetic fertilizers
* New planting seasons and fundamental building:
Use fertilizer with the following dosage, NPK 16-16-8-13S or NPK 20-20-15-TE:
- A new planting season: 400-600 kg/ha
- 2006-2007: 600-700 kg/ha
- 3-year average: 800-900 kg/ha
- In the wet season, the fertilizer mentioned above is divided three times.
* Coffee for business:
Use the balanced NPK fertilizer NPK 16-8-16-13S-TE with the required sulfur and trace elements to meet the nutritional needs of coffee during the wet season.
During the wet season, fertilize three times. Apply the following amount of fertilizer to coffee gardens with 3–4 tons of kernels per ha:
- First phase: 500–700 kg/ha, sprayed early in the wet season when rain is frequent.
- Phase 2: applied during the rainy season at 700-800 kg/ha.
- Phase 3: 800-1000 kg/ha, administered at least 20 days before the rainy season’s conclusion. If the orchard produces more than 3–4 tons of kernels per ha, it is required to increase the fertilizer rate from 150–200 kg/ha/time during each treatment session.
When the soil is sufficiently damp, discard. Around the coffee tree canopy, dig a trench, fill it with dirt, and distribute the manure evenly.
5. Trimming and fixing limbs
The second storey will be raised for the coffee garden at the start of the business period when there are low tree heights when the canopy is steady. Allow one overrun to extend around 10 cm from the first stopper location. The tops of the tree should be stopped for a second time at 1.6 meters above the ground and maintained there for the duration of the coffee tree’s life cycle. After cutting off the tips, be sure to remove the shoots that are growing swiftly at the canopy’s top.
After harvesting, a perennial coffee garden would undergo a significant trimming to eliminate damaged, diseased, weak, or old branches.
At the beginning of the rainy season, a light pruning is required to continue eliminating dead branches and newly-emerging invalid branches that appear during the dry season.
Until the coffee cherries have grown enough to mend the branches once more, around August to September, to position the reserve branches for the upcoming harvest season, the secondary branches that are too dense and weak must be cut back during this phase of branch repair. This leaves only healthy reserve branches with short internodes that indicate good fruiting during the upcoming dry season.
6. Pest management
These pests are frequently present during the wet season:
Coccus Viridis and Saissetia hemisphaerica: These aphids often focus on young plant components. Like shoots, branches, leaves, and young fruits to suck sap and defoliat. Which can exhaust the tree and cause the tree to die. Compared to commercial coffee gardens, simple coffee gardens frequently have more aphids. Preventative actions:
- Trim the branches near the ground and clean the grass in the plot to prevent ants from spreading aphids.
- Use one of the following medications in a concentration of 0.2–0.3 percent to spray on plants with aphids to get rid of them: Bi58, Subatox, Suprathion, Supracide, Pyrex.
Stephanoderes hamper: Weevils mainly harm older, greener fruits as well as ripe ones that have been left on the tree. They can also grow in dried fruits that have been left on the ground and in coffee cherries that have been dried but have kernel moisture levels above 13%. Prevention strategies:
- To stop the spread of weevils, sanitize the field, timely harvest ripe fruits off the tree, and pick up all dried fruits that have been left on the ground.
- Keep dried fruit or kernels at less than 13 per cent moisture content (post-harvest).
Hemileia vastatrix is a pest that is frequently found in coffee gardens. The fungus attacks the underside of leaves, first appearing as pale yellow spots, followed by an orange-colored chalky layer. As the lesions enlarge, they can defoliate a leaf completely or partially, which exhausts the plant. The illness typically first manifests at the start of the rainy season and intensifies toward its conclusion.
Prevention strategies: To prevent disease, spritz one of the following medications: Tilt, Bumper, 0.1 percent Bayleton, or 0.2 percent Anvil. The following conditions must be met when spraying:
- Spray the underside of leaves thoroughly.
- When plants have 10% infected leaves (which often happens 2-3 months after the start of the rainy season), spray for the first time. Then, spray twice more, one month apart.
- Because the medicine only helps to prevent infections throughout the year. And only sprays for unhealthy plants, spraying must be done annually.
Use the grafting technique instead to be able to entirely eradicate sick plants. Trees with severe rust disease were cut down, and then certain coffee kinds with rust tolerance were grafted on.
Dry fruit and dry branch disease
Nutritional imbalance or the fungus Colletotrichum coffeanum are the two main causes of the condition. The disease mostly damages branches and fruit, causing branches to dry out and fruit to fall from them. Fungal lesions are initially yellow-brown before enlarging and turning dark brown. In contrast to unaffected areas, the lesions are sometimes profoundly recessed.
– Planting trees that provide adequate shade and fertilizing in moderation to prevent trees from becoming overburdened by excessive fruiting. Remove weak branches.
– To stop the fungus that produces dry branches and fruits, one of the following medications can be used: 0.2% for Carbenzim, 0.1% for Tilt, and 0.1% for Bumper. Spray harmed gardens during the start of the disease season. 2 to 3 times, separated by 15 days.
Corticum salmonicolor: A fungus-based illness. The majority of the damage is concentrated near the branching points, on the branches and in the highest section of the canopy of the tree. In the rainy season’s last months, the sickness typically manifests. When the illness spreads around the circumference of the branches, it might kill the units. The first lesions appear as white patches on the underside of the units that subsequently turn pink. The primary preventative measure is early diagnosis and removal of unhealthy attachments. Use the medication Validacin 2 per cent or Anvil 0.2 per cent and spray 2-3 times 15 days apart if the condition seems widespread.