Typica Coffee – Origin & Biological Characteristicsư: The history of coffee, especially in its early stages, has progressed with Typica. For many coffee lovers, Typica Coffee is the standard for every quality measure for coffee.
For the past two centuries, people have debated whether coffees are good or bad based on the taste of Typica. However, the coffee industry is gradually abdicating Typica in the position of “queen” as it once held. Despite its high yield, its low resistance to pests and diseases makes it no longer popular globally.
Typica Coffee Overview
Due to its genetic properties, Arabica Typica contains large amounts of malic acid – giving it a sour taste like in an apple. This high-quality attribute plus the sweetness of the overall flavor is greatly appreciated. Compared with Bourbon trees, Typica trees have longer beans and produce about 20-30% less coffee.
They can also become the prey of all the coffee pests and diseases, such as rust (coffee leaf rust) or beryllium disease. In short, the genus Typica coffee trees have the ability for beans. Coffee cup quality is high, but the economic efficiency is relatively low. Many offspring have been re-created in the hope of overcoming these problems.
According to WCR Arabica Typica is commonly known as a group (The Typica group) with many sub-varieties, these descendants are cultivated scattered throughout the world and bear different names such as Criollo (Creole), Indio (in India) or Arábigo (Arabica) or Blue Mountain (in Jamaica) and Sumatra (in Indonesia).
History Of Coffee Cultivation Arabica Typica
With that said, Typica, along with Bourbon coffee, is one of the two most genetically essential C. Arabica coffees globally. Historical records indicate that Typica coffee beans were taken from the coffee forests of southwestern Ethiopia and brought to Yemen in the 16th century.
The first Typica seeds from Yemen were sent to Baba Budan in India. These seeds gave rise to coffee plantations in the region of Mysore known as Malabar at that time.
Sometime later, in 1696 (to 1699) from the Malabar coast of India, the Typica coffee tree was brought by the Dutch to Batavia, today called Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia. However, it should be added that the Dutch had previously tried to plant Typica seeds from Yemen directly to Batavia in 1690. However, most of them died due to earthquakes.
But Typica’s journey did not stop there. From the Typica coffee group on Java – Indonesia, a single coffee tree was brought to Amsterdam in 1706 (in the Amsterdam botanical garden), laying the foundation for the seed source.
Which later invaded the Americas in the 18th century. In 1714 after the peace treaty of Utrecht between the Netherlands and France was signed, the mayor of Amsterdam presented a Typica coffee tree to King Louis IV of France. It is grown in the greenhouse of the Jardin des Plantes.
Typica’s Presence In Central & South America
Thus, both France and the Netherlands have in their hands the seeds of Typica. The next good thing is that in the 17th century, both these empires were dividing a colony in South America, the land of Guianas, the other hand by the Dutch. Lan controlled (now Suriname) the remaining fees in the hands of the French.
And so, in 1719, Typica coffee spread from Dutch Guiana to French Guiana and then arrived in Brazil in 1727. Simultaneously through the second route from Paris to the island of Martinique, by Captain Gabriel de Clieu.
From Brazil, Typica continued to be shipped to Peru and Paraguay. By the end of the 18th century, the cultivation of Typica coffee spread to the Caribbean (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Santo Domingo), Mexico, and Colombia, and from there to Central America (it was grown in El Salvador as early as C. 1740).
Until the 1940s, most coffee plantations in Central America were planted with Typica varieties. Because the typica variety has a low yield and is very susceptible to coffee diseases (such as rust, berry, and nematode diseases), it has been gradually replaced in many countries of the Americas but is still widely cultivated. In Peru, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Jamaica.
Popular Typica Coffee Varieties
Today, coffee production in Latin America is still based to a large extent on cultivars developed from typica and Bourbon varieties. Brazil, accounting for 40% of world production, has 97.55% of coffee varieties originating from Typica and Bourbon.
However, there is a typical paradox of the Typica cultivar combination. Most of the native coffee trees of Typica origin, such as Blue Mountain, Kona, Java, and Sumatra, are mistaken as separate species. All have Typica heritage, but their reputation for flavor overwhelms the source.
Breed Kent From India
It was the first coffee plant to be grown for rust resistance (although it is now vulnerable to new strains of the disease). Most people believe that this variety is derived from the Typica trees grown in East India, but it has been produced all over the country.
There is also a version of Kent called K7, which is very popular in Kenya.
Kona Coffee Tree (Hawaii)
Kona coffee is one of the most expensive and prized coffees globally. However, Hawaiian coffee growers call it “Kona Typica” (because of the distinct flavor, not the genetics).
It is possible because Kona is cultivated based on the unique (and highly regulated) growing conditions and methods of the Kona region in Hawaii. The Kona farmer here was the first to treat coffee farming as a craft, and very few did.
With a reputation for quality overshadowing even its Typica roots, Kona coffee has become quite scarce, and for this reason there are many “Kona Coffee” with less than 10% Kona beans on the market – Craft Coffee
Blue Mountain variety (Jamaica)
Like Kona, this is another “brand” of Typica, this time from the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. The Jamaica Coffee Industry Commission has overseen the growth and processing of this coffee, and all coffee sold under the “Blue Mountain” name has been certified by the board. Like Kona, the Blue Mountain brand also went red and lost its Typica roots.
Maragogype or Maragogipe, pronounced [mara-go-heap-ay], this variety is a natural mutant of Typica discovered in Brazil circa 1870. The main disadvantage is that it has a relatively low yield, and Again everything on the Maragogype tree is huge: overall size, leaves, fruit & seeds.
Because of the rather large size of these beans, it takes a little extra skill in the roasting process to tap into the flavor potential. However, Maragogype is not widely grown (due to its low yield), but its rarity and relative quality have attracted many people.
- worldcoffeeresearch.org/ – The Catalog Coffee Varieties
- espressocoffeeguide.com/ – History of the Coffee Bean