Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants

Vietnamese Coffee Exporter
Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants
Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants

Coffee plant

Coffee is a member of the Rubiaceae plant family, which includes 500 genera and over 6000 species. The majority are tropical trees and plants that have been planted in the jungle’s lower levels. The genus quinine, as well as other useful chemicals, are members of the plant family. Nonetheless, in the Rubiaceae family, the genus Coffea has played the most important economic role. Let Helena learn about Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants

They Who Species 

(list some species)

Breed
type (e.g.
🙂
Rubiaceae Coffee (Coffea) Tea coffee (Arabica) Typical
Canephora Robust
Liberia

 

Botanists have had many conflicts about constructing an accurate categorization system since Linnaeus accurately described The Genus Coffee in the mid-18th century. At least 25 important species, native species, tropical Africa, and a few Indian Ocean islands, especially Madagascar, are found. Due to the diversity of plants and seeds in the genus Coffee (Coffea), categorization and recognition of a plant in the genus Coffee (Coffea) is becoming increasingly challenging. The leaves of all Coffee species are yellowish, dark blue, dark yellow, or tinged with purple, and range in height from a little bush to trees over 10 meters tall.

Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants
Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants

Coffea Arabica (tea coffee), which accounts for more than 60% of global production, and Coffea Canephora are the two most economically important coffee species (Robusta coffee). Coffea Liberica and Coffea Dewevrei are two other types farmed in lower quantities (Excelsa coffe

A few different points keep coffee tea characteristics (Arabica) and Robusta:

Arabica Robust
The time the species was announced. 1753 1895
Number of chromosomes (2n) 44 22
The time from blooming until the fruit is ripe Nine months 10-11 months
Time of bloom After the rain Infrared frequently
Ripe berries Fall Still on the tree.
Productivity (kg beans/ha) 1500-3000 2300-4000
Root system Deep Shallow
Optimum temperature (average year) 15-24° C 24-30° C
The optimal amount of intrigue 1500-2000 mm 2000-3000 mm
Optimum altitude 1000-2000 m 0-700 m
Hemileia vastatrix (rust) Desensitization Resist
Koleroga Disease Desensitization Can endure
Tuyến trùng Nematodes Desensitization Resist
Bệnh Tracheomycosis Resist Desensitization
Berry disease (coffee anthrax) Desensitization Resist
The caffeine content in nuts 0.8-1.4% 1.7-4.0%
Granular shape Horizontal flat Oval shape
Set typical brewing Acidity Bitter, full
Trunk Average 1.2% Average 2.0%

 

Coffee plants arabica – Arabica coffee bean

In 1753, Linnaeus published the first description of arabica coffee. “Typica” and “Bourbon” are the most well-known varieties. Caturra (Brazil, Colombia), Mundo Novo (Brazil), Tico (Central America), San Ramon dwarf, and Jamaican Blue Mountain are just a few of the strains and types that have come from here. The Arabica tree has dark blue oval-shaped leaves and has a huge bud. The plant produces fruit-shaped fruit that matures in 7 to 9 months and normally contains two flat seeds (coffee beans) But it is termed Culi coffee when only one seed grows. Disease resistance is a primary goal of plant breeding initiatives since Arabica coffee is susceptible to insect assaults and outbreaks. Latin America, Central and East Africa, India, and Indonesia are all home to Arabica coffee.

Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants

Coffea canephora – Robusta coffee

Robusta coffee bean is widely farmed cultivar of this plant. 
It can grow to be healthy bush or small tree up to 10 meters tall, although its root structure is shallow rather than deep. 
It takes up to 11 months for the fruit to mature. 
The seeds are round in shape and smaller than Arabica coffee fruit. 
Robusta coffee is grown in West and Central Africa, from Southeast Asia to Brazil’s Conillon region.

Liberica coffee (Coffea liberica)

Liberica coffee is huge, vigorous plant with stiff broad leaves that can grow up to 18 meters tall. 
Large berries with lot of seeds. Liberica coffee is grown in Malaysia and West Africa. However, due to its low taste standards, only a small quantity is exchanged.
Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants
Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee organoleptic quality 

Crop breeding

Arabica coffee

  1. Arabica coffee tree is a tetrahedron and can pollinate itself. There are two different plant varieties, typical and bourbon. Historically, typical was grown in Latin America and Asia, while bourbon bean was produced in South America and East Africa through French fabric. Because C. arabica is a self-pollinating plant, these varieties maintain genetic stability. However, the spontaneous mutation expresses desirable characteristics raised in its way and being exploited for cross-breeding purposes. A few variations and combinations are described below:
Distinguishing biological characteristics of coffee plants
Distinguish biological characteristics

Many varieties are developed to deliver dark economic returns in regional conditions such as climate, land, farming methods, and the prevalence of pests and diseases. Better tree variety populations are known as:

  • Blue Moutain is grown in Jamaica and Kenya
  • Mundo Novo – a cross between typical and bourbon, commonly grown in Brazil
  • Kent – raised in India, may be resistant to some common diseases.
  • Casual – the result of the Mundo Novo and Caturra hybrids, which feature yellow leaves and red berries: Catuai-amarelo and Catuai-Vermelho

Coffea canephora

  1. canephora is dissingral, cannot be fertilized on its own, and has various forms and types. Identifying plant varieties is a bit difficult, but the two main types are recognized:

– ‘Robusta’ coffee bean – vertical form

– ‘Nganda’ – the spread of

Arabica / Robusta hybrid

Growth and flowering, yield, grain size and stickiness, quality, caffeine intake, disease resistance, and drought resilience are all traits that are carefully bred into the level coffee quality.

Crossing Arabica coffee species coffea with Robusta in order to improve Arabica’s disease resistance, robusta coffee leaf rust  vitality, or Robusta’s quality.

Hybrid de Timor is a natural hybrid of Arabica and Robusta with 44 chromosomes that looks like species coffea arabica.

Catimor is a coffee beans hybrid between Caturra and Hibrido de Timor that is rust-resistant.

Ruiru Eleven is a low hybrid variety. In 1985, the Coffee Research Station in Ruiru, Kenya, launched the product. Ruiru 11 can induce coffee berry disease and rust. It’s also very productive and stable at planting densities twice as high as the average.

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