How To grow Arabica Coffee Trees – Technical Process of Cultivating Arabica Coffee. Arabica Coffee is a pollinator, so most varieties of Arabica Coffee are currently grown in the country such as Bourbon, Typica, Caturra, Catuai, Mundo, Novo, Catimor…
Catimor coffee variety was first imported into Vietnam in 1984 from Cuba, then from the Portuguese Oeiras Anti-rust Breeding Research Center in 1990.
This is a hybrid between Hybrid de Timor and Catura; under the form of a tree, short burning branches, capable of thick planting; rust resistance (the most outstanding advantage of Catimor). (Farmers still call Catimor coffee a poor child, because it’s easy to care for and doesn’t require much technology.)
Catimor coffee trees have a canopy that covers the trunk, thus limiting the damage of stem borers (this type of worm has a habit of not liking to lay eggs in places where there is no light). If intensive farming is good, 1 hectare of Catimor coffee will yield 4-5 tons. Due to its high yield, rust resistance, delicious taste, and about 1.5 times higher selling price than black coffee, Catimor coffee is grown in many parts of the world.
I. SCOPE, APPLICATION OBJECTS
- Scope of regulation: This process stipulates the technical requirements for planting and caring, Pest control, harvesting, and preservation of coffee and Arabica trees produced in Lam Dong.
- Subjects of application: This process applies to organizations and individuals related to coffee and Arab production in Lam Dong province.
- Economic and technical objectives: Basic construction period: 3 years (1 year of planting, 2 years of tending);
– Average yield in the business period: On red basalt soil: 2.5-3 tons of kernels/ha; on other soils, 2-2.5 tons of kernels/ha.
II. CHARACTERISTICS AND REQUIREMENTS ON EXTERNAL CONDITIONS:
1. Botanical characteristics:
Arabica Coffee ( Coffea arabica ) has small leaves, and the tree is usually low. This is the most economically valuable species of the coffee tree. The coffee tree prefers to live in the high mountains, and the tree has a large canopy, dark green color, and oval leaves. Mature coffee trees can be 4-6 m tall. Fruit oval, each containing two coffee beans. After planting for about 3-4 years, Arabica Coffee can start to be harvested. Usually, at the end of the harvest, the coffee plants have differentiated flower buds (self-pollinating Arabica Coffee). Coffee roots account for 80% of the roots in the 0-30cm arable soil layer. Roots can be sucked up to 1m deep, wide to the outer edge of the foliage.
Arabica Coffee have types: Typica, Bourbon, Moka, Mondonova, Caturra, Catuai, Catimor…
2. Ecological requirements:
– Land: The land has a slope of 0-15 0, the most suitable is below 8 0, suitable with a small limit of 8-15 0; Arabica Coffee should not be grown on sloping land > 20 0; porosity is over 60%, the soil is easy to drain, the soil layer is around 70cm thick, the groundwater level is more profound than 100cm, humus content of topsoil layer (0-20cm) is over 2.5%, KCL pH 4.5-6. All kinds of weathered soils from Portland, limestone, sandstone, granite… if the conditions mentioned above are met, coffee can be grown, but basalt is the most suitable soil.
– Temperature and altitude: The most suitable range is from 15-24 0 C. Arabica Coffee is ideal in areas with altitudes from 800-1,500m above sea level.
– Rainfall: Arabica Coffee plants need rainfall from 1,200-1,900mm, a short dry season of at least 2 months at the end and after the harvest, plus low temperatures, which is favorable for the differentiation of flower buds…
– Humidity: Air humidity above 70% is favorable for growth and development. When the coffee blooms, it needs high humidity. If it doesn’t rain, it needs to be watered during this period.
– Light: Coffee likes scattered light; places with solid light need to grow shade trees.
– Wind: Cold, hot, and dry winds are harmful to the growth of coffee plants. Strong winds cause leaves to be torn, dropped, and young leaves dry. Hot wind increases the transpiration process of trees, so it is necessary to have shade trees and forest belts to block the wind.
III. TECHNICAL GROWTH AND CARE:
Currently, in Lam Dong, Catimor coffee varieties are commonly being grown. This is a hybrid between Hybrid de Timor and Catura; under the form of a tree, short burning branches, capable of thick planting; rust resistance.
2. Building seed nurseries:
2.1. Nursery design:
Choose a place where irrigation is convenient, near the road and, easy to transport seedlings, relatively airtight. The perch has a column height of 1.8-2.0m, a field bed from 1.2-1.5m, a length of 20-25m in the north-south direction, and the aisle between the beds is 30-40cm wide. The garden is sheltered from the wind.
2.2. Selection of varieties:
Using recognized types, selecting fully ripe fruits from 5-6 years old seed production gardens, picking and processing to get seeds within 24 hours. After rubbing the meat, incubate for 18-20 hours, then treat it clean, dry it in a ventilated, light sunny place with a thickness of 2-3cm. When the moisture in the seeds is 20-30%, it is enough moisture to breed. Seeds should not be left for more than 2 months. The longer they are gone, the less they will germinate.
2.3. Seed treatment:
Take the seeds to dry in the sun when the rice husks are a bit brittle, gently rub the husks off, remove the deep, deformed roots, and keep the seeds from 20-24 hours in warm water at 50-60 0 C. (lime water 1kg lime + 50 litres of water). Then rinse thoroughly with clean water.
How to incubate seeds:
To ensure a temperature of 30-32 0 C, you can use a straw, straw, dried banana leaves, jute bags lining the bottom and sides of the basket, cover with a layer of sack, put the seeds in incubation, on the surface also Cover with clean sacks. Daily watering with warm water (30-40 0 C) for rapid seed germination twice at about 6-7 am and 6-7 pm. Do not unpack the sack too much to lose heat. After incubation for 5 days to check, select seeds that have cracked fangs (sprout) and sow, do not let sprouts exceed 3mm long.
2.4. Potting soil and nursery bags:
– Soil used for potting nursery must be taken from the top soil layer 0-10cm, loose, high fertility, organic content reaching 30% or more. The soil must be dried, crushed, passed through a 5mm sieve to remove all organic residues and stones, then filled with broken manure and fused phosphate with the following ratio: 1,000kg soil + 200kg farmyard manure + Phosphorus 20kg.
– Potting bag: Size 12-13cm x 20-23cm, the bottom of the pot is punched with 6-8 small holes 5mm in diameter for drainage. The potting soil must be tight, balanced, and vertical (the bottom two corners of the pot must be compacted, and the back of the pot must not have any broken places). Arrange the potting soil close together, vertically, into beds 1-1.2m wide in the north-south direction; the beds are about 50-60cm apart, and around the beds, cover 1/3-1/4 of the potting height to keep moisture and bed stabilization.
2.5. Put the sprouted seeds into the pot:
– Water the potting soil moist enough. Use a round, pointed stick with a diameter of 1cm to poke a hole in the middle of the ground to put the seeds in. The root sprouts are facing the ground; the seed depth is 0.5-1cm, then backfill with soil. . Use rice husk to sprinkle on the gourd’s surface.
The row of pots at the outer edge of the bed should be sown 2 seeds to get seedlings to plant in the dead plants (About 5% of the pots sow two seeds). After sowing, use a shower of water to stabilize the seeds and water daily to keep the soil moist enough for healthy sprouts.
2.6. Caring for seedlings at the nursery:
– Planting miles:
From the time the tree wears a hat until the tree produces the first two true leaves, use the tree in the backup potting bag to move into the pots that do not grow.
Need to be watered adequately: small plants need to be watered more or less often, and large trees need to be watered more and less often. Specifically:
|Months old||Seedling growth stage||Number of days/time of watering (day)||Amount of water for irrigation (liter/m 2 /time)|
|1st month||Grow up, wear a hat||1-2||6|
|2nd month||There they are||2-3||9|
|3rd and 4th month||1-3 pairs of leaves||3-4||12-15|
|5-6th month||4 pairs of leaves or more||4-5||18-20|
– Fertilizing: When the plant has the first pair of true leaves, start fertilizing:
+ Inorganic fertilizers include:
Urea and potassium at the rate of 200gr urea + 100gr KCl dissolved in 100 liters of water, water evenly and gradually increase the amount over time of plant growth. Watering fertilizer in the morning, about 15-20 days watering 1 time.
+ Organic fertilizers include:
Well soaked manure one month before watering. When watering, it is necessary to dilute the ratio of 1 fertilizer + 5 water and gradually increase the concentration. The amount of fertilizer for 1 hectare of nursery: 20-30 tons of manure, 2 tons of bio-organic fertilizer, 500kg of urea, 1,000kg of phosphorus, 300kg of potassium.
2.7. Pest control and weeding:
Pay attention to prevention of root rot, remove diseased plants from the garden to burn, spray the remaining plants with 0.5% boordo solution; Vicarben 0.25% or Till 0.1%. From 10-15 days, spray 1 time (1 liter of drug solution/1m 2 beds).
When there is a phenomenon of leaf buds and the next 1-2 pairs of leaves are silvered, white turns yellowish, spray 1% ZnSO4 solution , spray evenly on the potting beds, 1 liter solution/m 2 times , spray 2-3 times, 15-20 days spray 1 time.
Regularly weeding, breaking the layer of scum on the surface of the pot.
2.8. Remove the light adjustment rig, train the tree:
When the tree has 1 pair of true leaves, the canopy allows 15-20% of the light to pass through. When the plant has 3 pairs of true leaves, remove the leaves to leave a gap of 20cm wide along the furrow, allowing 30-40% of light to pass through. When the tree has 3-4 pairs of leaves, the canopy is left open to allow 50-70% of the light to pass through, then once every 17-20 days, unload the space on the trellis to widen, 20 days before planting, remove the cover. completely let the plant get used to natural conditions.
2.9. Classification and selection of plants for planting:
Before planting, it is necessary to classify and plant only seedlings that meet the following criteria: Age of seedlings out of garden 5-7 months, tree height from potting surface 20-25cm, sugar root neck diameter 2-3mm, number of pairs of true leaves 5-7, plants grow normally, no pests, no deformity and trained in full light for 10-15 days.
The plants that are not fully planted must be kept in the nursery to plant the next crop, need to be treated and cut off the tops: Use a sharp knife or scissors to cut the stem at a height of 8-10cm above the first pair of true leaves. Additional fertilizer with organic fertilizer 20gr + 3gr urea + 2g potassium/potassium. The care regimen is the same as for new seedlings. Process from December to February next year.
- Planting and caring techniques:
3.1. Soil preparation:
The planting soil must be in a suitable planting area and the planting soil must be good, thick, porous, easy to drain, rich in nutrients. Basalt, porta, granite, clay shale soils can all grow Arabica Coffee if they meet the following criteria:
– Layer thickness is over 70cm, porosity is over 60%, organic content is over 2.5%, KCL pH > 4.5. Groundwater level is 1m above ground, slope is below 20 0 . Land where forestry trees and fruit trees have expired, old coffee gardens, etc., if they want to be used for new coffee plantations, they must be harrowed, rooted, destroyed, then planted with cabbage. create land for 3-4 consecutive crops with legumes, safely handle pests and diseases to grow coffee.
3.2. Design of orchards:
If the land has a large area, the terrain is less fragmented, it is necessary to design it into 10-15ha plots, the length follows the contour line. The plot is divided into lots of about 1ha (50 x 200m). If the land area is narrow and the terrain is strongly dissected, divide the plots according to the dividing line of the terrain, between the plots according to the topography, build 2-3m wide subdivision lines according to the contour lines.
Design coffee rows according to contour lines if planted on sloping land. Planting density depends on variety and slope.
3.3. Digging holes and composting in holes: Digging holes must be completed at least 2 months before new planting.
– For Arabica Coffee, the appropriate pit size is 40cm x 40cm x 50cm.
After digging the hole for about 1 month, take organic fertilizer + phosphorus, mix it with the top soil and fill it in the hole. Use your feet to compact it. The phosphate soil mixture is about 10-15cm higher than the crater. Fertilizer dosage for 1 pit: Organic fertilizer: 10-20kg + 0.3kg fused phosphorus. If there is not enough manure, use bagged organic fertilizers.
3.4. Growing coffee:
– Planting season:
Start planting at the beginning of the rainy season, finish planting 1-2 months before the dry season. Best planted from June to August 15 every year.
– How to plant:
The soil in the coffee planting hole needs to be mixed well, using a hoe to make a small hole in the middle of the hole. Use a knife to slit and peel the plastic pot, trim the bottom of the pot, gently put the plant in the middle of the hole, adjust the tree to stand upright, fill with soil, compact it, 10-15cm above the ground, plant 1 tree in each hole.
– Making a basin:
Dig a basin around the base of the coffee tree to limit erosion in the rainy season and store water for irrigation in the dry season. The excavation work must be carried out 1-2 months before the dry season. In the first year, the basin is dug in a square with the size of 1m wide, 0.15 to 0.2m deep, in the following years the basin is expanded according to the canopy until the basin reaches a stable size: 1-1 wide. ,5m and depth from 0.15 to 0.2m. When dredging to create a basin, it is necessary to minimize damage to the coffee roots.
– Root cabinets:
When the tub is finished, use straw, thatch, or grass for the root cabinet, which can be stored around the base or under a tape with a thickness of 10-20cm, the cabinet is about 5-10cm away from the root to avoid termites harming the plants.
– Planting density and spacing:
|Slope < 8 0||Slope >8 0|
|Density (tree/ha)||Distance (m)||Density (tree/ha)|
|Low-growing varieties: Catimor Caturra, Catuai, …||2 x1.0||5.000||2 x 0,8||6.250|
|Tall varieties: Typica, Bourbon, Mondonovo…||2,5 x 1,5||2.667||2,5 x 1,0||4.000|
Coffee rows must be planted along contour lines, the minimum hole size is: 40cm long, 40cm wide, 50cm deep for low-tree varieties.
50cm long, 50cm wide, 60cm deep for tall coffee varieties.
– Planting shade trees and forest belt trees: Shade trees are divided into 2 types:
+ Forest belt:
The forest belt is perpendicular to the wind, or 60 0 from the main wind direction, 6-9m wide. The distance between the forest belt depends on the size of the plot. It is possible to plant two rows of black cassia (Cassia siamia Lamk ) with 2 m rows, 2 m apart or 3 rows of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp) , yellow-flowered melaleuca (Acacia auriculiformis) , Acacia mangium (Acacia mangium) rows 1m apart, trees 1-2m away from trees planted with crocodile’s fangs, in addition to the main forest belt, there are additional forest belts planted at right angles to the main forest belt, a row of giant acacia, yellow flower Melaleuca or fruit trees.
– Design of forest belt combined with plot design. If possible, plant a forest belt 1-2 months before coffee planting. On the top of the hill, dense forest trees should be planted to limit erosion.
+ Shade trees: Long-term shade trees use the following types:
Black cassia: planting distance 20 x 20 m/plant.
Acacia tree (Leucaena glauca Benth ) , cassia tora (Cassia tora) planting distance 10 x 10 m/tree.
These plants are planted in pots and carefully cared for, when they reach a height of 30-40cm, they will be planted. The location for planting shade trees is on the row, between two coffee trees. Shade trees are planted at the same time as coffee planting.
When the shade tree grows well, it is necessary to regularly prune the horizontal branches, the canopy of the shade tree should be at least 2-3m away from the coffee canopy in the early stage and 4m or more in the business period.
Coffee in the household garden, using avocado, durian, persimmon, pepper, flowers… intercropped or planted around the garden, planting distance 20×15 m/tree to increase income combined with cover crop shade, but must be fully fertilized and prune horizontal branches, creating appropriate shapes for each type of tree.
+ Temporary shade trees:
Cactus tree (Tephrosia candida DC ) , cassia flower (Cassia surattensis Burm ) , pea plant (Flemingia congesta) are temporary shade trees, suitable for basic construction coffee. . Seeds are sown at the beginning of the rainy season between two rows of coffee, at a distance of 2-3 coffee rows, sow a row of shade trees. When the trees grow well, the branches are crowded with coffee, then the weeds are pruned and pressed green on the coffee base.
+ Intercropping legumes:
In the first three years of Arabica Coffee garden, the trees have not been dispersed, so intercropping beans and green manure crops between the two coffee rows to increase income, protect and improve the land and provide high quality organic biomass for plants.
The beans eat seeds such as peanuts, red peas, soybeans, black beans… leaf stalks into the coffee base or digging trenches into the soil.
Legumes such as peas, peas and beans (Cajanus indicus spreng ) ; sitting cat bean (Capavalia ensiformis DC), thornless virgin (Mimosa invisa var inermis) sown in the rainy months, when flowering, cut the stem and bury it in the soil, a year can be cut 2-3 times.
The intercropping plants must be 40-50cm away from the coffee tree, do not intercrop the core trees, maize, cassava, and rice into the coffee garden.
– Set up anti-erosion tape:
On too steep a terrain, it is necessary to plant ice to prevent erosion. Vetiver grass can be used, planted along contour lines, about 15-20cm from the other tape.
3.5. Planting miles:
If the tree is found dead or poorly developed, it is necessary to plant miles. The planting of miles needs to be finished before the end of the rainy season from 1.5 to 2 months, when planting miles, just dig holes and replant on holes with dead trees.
3.6. Uprooting and weeding:
For KTCB coffee, weeds must be cleaned into ice along the coffee row with a width larger than the canopy of the coffee tree by 0.5m on each side. Weeding 5-6 times a year. For coffee business need to clean the grass 3-4 times a year on the entire area. To eliminate perennial grasses, capable of asexual reproduction such as thatch grass, bear grass… can use herbicides with active ingredient glyphosate. Spray at the time of strong growth (thatch grass is 30-40cm high, bear grass is 10-15cm high). Every year at the beginning of the dry season, weeds around the coffee garden must be destroyed to prevent fire.
– Organic fertilizer:
Coffee is a perennial plant with strong, spreading roots, requiring a lot of fertilizer, the minimum level of fertilizer is as follows:
New planting year: 10-20kg/hole (primer fertilizer).
Business period: 15-20kg/tree. Once every 3 years, dig trenches according to the width of the canopy, 0.3-0.4m deep, 0.3m wide, 1-1.5m long. Fertilize with phosphate fertilizer and fill with soil.
– Chemical fertilizers:
To determine the fertilization regime for each area, it is necessary to base on the fertility of the soil and the yield capacity of the orchard. In areas where soil and leaf analysis is not available, the following quantitative fertilizers can be applied: (calculated for the average density of 5,000 plants/ha).
+ Mass of pure manure:
|Coffee age||Mass of pure fertilizer (Kg/ha/year)|
|N||P 2 O 5||K2O _ _|
|New planting (year 1)||40-50||150-180||30-40|
|2nd year care||70-95||80-90||50-60|
|3rd year care||160-185||80-90||180-210|
|Trading cycle 1||255-280||90-120||270-300|
|Sawing down (cultivating shoots)||115-140||150-180||120-150|
|Business cycle 2||225-280||90-120||270-300|
+ Volume of commercial fertilizer:
|Coffee age||Weight of commercial fertilizer (Kg/ha/year)|
|Urea||Super land||Potassium chloride|
|New planting (year 1)||70-108||909-1.090||50-67|
|2nd year care||152-206||485-545||84-100|
|3rd year care||347-401||485-545||300-350|
|Trading cycle 1||553-607||545-727||451-501|
|Sawing down (cultivating shoots)||250-304||909-1.090||200-250|
|Business cycle 2||553-607||545-727||451-501|
(Based on the above fertilizer quantity, depending on each coffee variety and planting density to calculate and adjust the amount of fertilizer to suit each planting density per unit area).
In the annual business period, add 10-15kg of ZnSO 4 and 10-15kg of H 3 BO 3 , mix well with nitrogen, fertilize potassium or spray directly on the leaves with a concentration of 0.5%.
– Time of fertilizing: Depending on the weather conditions of each region, the fertilization sessions may be indifferent months between regions. Fertilizer can be applied 4 times per year as follows:
|Type of manure||Fertilization rate (%)|
|March 2-3||April 4-5||June-July||September-October|
In addition to the amount of fertilizer according to the above norm, to ensure a sustainable garden and stable high yield, it is possible to apply lime once every 2-3 years with an amount of 500-1,000kg/ha, evenly distributed in the canopy, fertilizer at the beginning of the rainy season.
– How to fertilize: If the coffee garden has a flat terrain, fertilize around the canopy. If coffee is grown on sloping land, fertilize half of the canopy above the slope in the form of a semicircle.
For young coffee, apply 10cm from the root to a 20cm wide strip outside the edge of the canopy.
When the tree is grown, fertilize 20cm from the base and apply in a 30cm wide strip to the outside edge of the canopy.
When the tree is in the business period, apply fertilizer 30cm from the root along a 50cm wide strip to the outside edge of the canopy.
In the fertilizing area, rake to a depth of 5-7cm to spread the fertilizer, then backfill with soil along with plant residues on the garden. Manure and organic fertilizers are applied in trenches at the beginning or middle of the rainy season. The trench is dug on one side along the edge of the canopy, 15-20cm wide, 20-25cm deep, 60-80cm long. The following years dug trenches to the other side; Do not mix nitrogenous fertilizers or fertilizers containing nitrogen with lime, do not fertilize on hot sunny days with temperature > 30 0 C, during cold weather with temperature < 15 0 C, do not fertilize when coffee blooms.
– Processing coffee pods as fertilizer:
Materials : 1,000kg of coffee pods ; Manure 200kg ; Fused phosphate fertilizer 50kg ; 10kg urea fertilizer ; Lime powder 15kg ; Sugar sand 2kg ; Probiotic 2kg .
How to do this: To decompose fresh coffee pods, we put them in piles 1.2m wide, 1-1.2m high, 5-10m long, the piles are 1.2m apart.
To make a pile, first make a shell about 20cm thick, then spread a layer of phosphate or lime, if possible add a little manure. Keep doing it in layers until you reach a height of 1.2m. After 25-30 days, turn once, do not compact to provide more oxygen for microorganisms to decompose.
Use decomposed coffee husks: Fertilize new coffee plantations, fertilize business coffee gardens, fertilize other crops instead of manure.
3.9. Watering: After planting, pay attention to the root cabinet to keep it moist. When the tree lacks water, it is necessary to water it in the dry season 3-4 times. Each batch is 20-25 days apart. The amount of water to irrigate depends on the age of the plant. In the new planting year and the next 2 years, irrigate 200-300m 3 /ha/1 time watering.
Business years need 400-500m 3 /ha / 1 time watering: Particularly for the time of watering coffee trees, when the flower buds have fully developed, it is necessary to irrigate 600m 3 / ha / the first time.
– Basic shaping:
For coffee planted with a density of > 4,500 trees/ha, only 1 stem is left. Density < 4,000 plants/ha can leave 2 stems/root. Select the overshoots that grow from the stem, 30-50cm from the base to create a new stem, cut off other overshoots promptly and regularly. The basic shaping is to create a coffee tree trunk with level I branches to create the frame of a coffee tree, there are 2 ways:
Do not press the top to let the coffee plant grow freely in height.
Depending on the fertility of the soil, variety, level of intensive farming, remove the tops of coffee at an appropriate height. Varieties with low trees, small canopy, limited ability to develop height such as Catimor, Caturra, Catuai, the tops are halved once at a height of 1.8m; Tall varieties such as Burbon, Typyca, Mundonovo shriveled their tops once at a height of 1.4m. After 2-3 years, the primary branches give rise to secondary branches, if the secondary branches are old, choose 1 oversized bud. near the top of the canopy to feed the 2nd layer and the top at the height of 1.8m.
Forming fruit raising:
On level I branches, it is necessary to create more secondary branches for these branches to bear fruit during the business period.
Pay attention to cut off toothpicks, trunk branches, beams near the ground, weak branches with pests. After the harvest, cut off the weak primary branches that are not strong enough to generate secondary branches and grow poorly. With level 1 branches with good roots, weak young segments, all of which fall off, if the branches are dry, they should also be cut. Prune off secondary branches if they are too thick. Usually, on a level I branch, only 4-5 secondary branches are left on the same node.
3.11. Taking care of sawed coffee gardens:
If the old coffee garden is no longer capable of high productivity, if there is no economic efficiency, it will be cut down and restored, moving to business cycle 2.
The cutting season is from March to April after harvest or the beginning of the rainy season.
Cut the trunk, leave the base 20-25cm above the ground, the cutting surface must be flat and beveled at an angle not to the west, then move the whole body out of the garden. Algae pruned tree branches to shade to let light in about 60-70%.
+ Apply 5-10 kg of manure and 0.2-0.3 kg of phosphate/base. Spread 500-1,000 kg of lime/ha, hoe the entire soil between the two rows of coffee roots to mix lime into the soil and loosen the soil.
+ After sawing 1-2 months, keep 4-5 healthy shoots evenly distributed on the stem. When the shoots are 20-30cm tall, choose to keep 2 buds to create the trunk, regularly remove all arising excess shoots.
+ At the beginning of the rainy season, apply chemical fertilizers according to the quantity and method of application as described above.
+ Conduct intercropping green manure legumes and beans between the two rows of coffee, the leaves are pressed green.
+ The height of the tops in this cycle is 1.6-1.8m and pruning, creating canopy as in the first cycle.
Pests and disease:
- Branch borer( Xyleborus morstatti )
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms:
Egg white, 0.3mm wide and 0.5mm long; The larva is about 2mm long, creamy white, light brown in color, has no legs; The pupae are creamy white, ribbed like adults; Adult body is twice as long as wide. Females are dark brown to completely black, 1.4-1.9mm long. The small wingless male is 0.8-1.1mm long. The egg stage lasts 3-5 days, usually after 4 days about 80% of eggs hatch. The female pokes into the branch with a small (1mm) hole in the underside of the branch, penetrates the middle of the branch, digs an underground tunnel, and lays eggs there. Each nest about 30-50 eggs. Young caterpillars develop on the walls of underground tunnels. Weevils thrive in the months of 3-6 every year, mainly damaging coffee trees during the basic construction period (2-3 years) before entering the business period. Life cycle of branch borer: 30-35 days including eggs 5-6 days, larvae 12-15 days, pupae 7-8 days, Mature 16-19 days. The damaged branches are quite obvious, the leaves are dark brown and wither quickly, then die on the tree. Break the branch down, split in half, see a section of the branch that has been hollowed out in the middle by weevils.
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation method: Planting shade trees. The damaged part should be cut off and burned and destroyed (note that it must be cut off at the same time).
+ Biện pháp hóa học: Sử dụng luân phiên các loại thuốc sau để phòng trừ: Diazinon (Diaphos 50EC); Chlorpyrifos Ethyl (Anboom 48EC, Pyritox 200EC); Abamectin (Tungatin 3.6EC); Buprofezin 10% + Chlorpyrifos Ethyl 40% (Penalty gold 50EC); Chlorpyrifos Ethyl 50% + Cypermethrin 5% (Tungcydan 55EC); Alpha-cypermethrin 2% + Chlorpyrifos Ethyl 38% (Careman 40EC); Abamectin 50 g/l + Matrine 5 g/l (Amara 55EC); Alpha-cypermethrin + Chlorpyrifos Ethyl + Imidacloprid (Spaceloft 595EC); Alpha-cypermethrin + Chlorpyrifos Ethyl + Indoxacarb (Vitashield gold 600EC)
- Stem borer(Xylotrechus Quatripes )
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms:
Ivory-colored eggs, ivory-white young worms always lie straight, without legs, the whole body consists of many segments, strong and hard teeth; Adults belong to the family of clippers 17-18mm long, 5-7mm wide. The head beard is straight and has many nodes. Black beetles have nuclei-shaped black cavities interspersed with yellow-gray markings that are also oval. Dorsal thorax yellow-gray; bare yellow pupae. Damage causes deformed young leaves, slightly curled edges, uneven leaf blades, turning from glossy green to dull dark green; On the trunk, there are ridges around the bottom of the bark.
The tree was invaded by worms and flew away, discovering small round holes. On the ridges, due to the blocked sap that does not feed the plant, the entire upper branches and leaves are yellowed and barren, while the lower branches are still green. Trees are easily broken down in the boreholes. Adults lay eggs in the fissures of the bark, scattered or in clusters. After bowing, The young caterpillars drill into the wood, then zigzag around the tree, turning across the wood veins. Where worms go, extrusion and sawdust seal there. When about to pupate, the caterpillar burrows out near the shell, until the shell is about to break, then stops.
The caterpillar pupates near the shell. The stem borer develops all year round but has 2 main waves in April, May and October, 11. Adults prefer to lay eggs on trees with few branches and sparse leaves. They work strongly when the temperature is high, the light is a lot. Life cycle of stem borer: Egg 15-32 days, larva 60-120 days, pupa 30-35 days, adult 25-30 days 11. Adults prefer to lay eggs on trees with few branches and sparse leaves. They work strongly when the temperature is high, the light is a lot. Life cycle of stem borer: Egg 15-32 days, larva 60-120 days, pupa 30-35 days, adult 25-30 days 11. Adults prefer to lay eggs on trees with few branches and sparse leaves. They work strongly when the temperature is high, the light is a lot. Life cycle of stem borer: Egg 15-32 days, larva 60-120 days, pupa 30-35 days, adult 25-30 days
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation measures: Planting shade trees reduces light intensity. Shaping the branches, giving the tree a balanced shape, the trunk is covered from top to bottom. For severely damaged trees, it is necessary to cut the stem with worms to burn and destroy.
+ Chemical measures: Use one of the drugs: Diazolon (Diazol 10GR, Diazan 50EC); Chlorpyrifos Ethyl + Cypermethrin (Tungcydan 55EC)
- Fruit borer(Prophantis smaragdina)
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms:
Adults are very small, yellow-brown moths with a wingspan of 14mm; scaly eggs, young purple-red worms 14mm long; brown pupae. He lays eggs one by one near the green one. Young caterpillars gnaw the flesh of the fruit, damaging it from one fruit to another. Damaged fruit turns yellow, then rots. In the middle of the damaged fruit, there are often worm droppings mixed with silk. The young caterpillars develop for about 2 weeks and then pupate on fallen leaves on the ground. The life cycle of fruit borer: egg: 7 days, juvenile: 13-15 days, adult: 15-20 days, pupae: 6 days (summer), 20-30 days (winter).
– Prevention measures: One of the following drugs can be used: Diazinon (Diaphos 50EC) ; Chlorpyrifos Methyl (Sieusao 40EC) ; Alpha–cypermethrin ( Anphatox25EW, Antaphos 100EC) ; Beta -Cyfluthrin (Bulldock 025) ; Chlorpyrifos Ethyl + Cypermethrin (Subside 505EC)
- Rệp sáp(Pseudococcus mercaptor, Pseudicocus spp)
– Characteristics and symptoms of damage:
Adult bed bugs have an oval shape on their body with many long white waxy fibers. Adult males are elongated, have wings without wax, big black eyes, antennae and legs have many short hairs, oval eggs stick together into a round nest, outside are covered with hairs, newly hatched aphids are pink. No wax on his side, legs are quite developed. The life cycle of mealybugs: eggs 3-5 days, juveniles 6-7 days, adults 20-30 days. Coffee is often damaged by two types of mealybugs: damage to pods, leaves and roots.
+ Leaf and fruit aphids: begin to lay eggs in the rainy season in the interstitial leaves, buds or clusters of young fruit. After hatching, young aphids quickly find a permanent place to live. The rainy season spawns a lot, causing the fruit to drop.
+ Root mealybugs live around the roots, underground, creating a waterproof coating around the root axis. Affected plants yellow leaves, wilt and die.
– Prevention: Use the following:
Chlorpyrifos Ethyl (Lorsban 30EC, Mapy 48 EC, Maxfos 50 EC); Diazinon (Diazan 10GR); Dimethoate (Bini 58 40 EC, Dimenat 20EC); Acephate (Monster 40 EC); Abamectin (Reasgant 1.8EC, Tungatin 3.6 EC); Cypermethrin (SecSaigon 50EC); Alpha-cypermethrin (FM-Tox 25EC, Motox 2.5EC); Cypermethrin + Dimethoate (Nitox 30 EC); Cypermethrin + Profenofos (Polytrin P 440 EC); Dimethoate + Etofenprox (Difentox 20EC); Chlorpyrifos Ethyl + Permethrin (Tasodant 6G, Sago – Super 20EC); Fenitrothion + Trichlorfon (Ofatox 400WP); Chlorpyrifos Ethyl + Cypermethrin (Serpal super 585EC, Rầy USA 560EC); Buprofezin + Chlorpyrifos Ethyl (Penalty gold 50EC)
- Fruit borer( Stephanoderes hampei Ferr .)
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms:
Adult beetles are small, brown or black beetles, 2.5mm to 4mm long. Females are larger than males and have webbed wings. Weevils often punch a small round hole next to the knob or in the middle of the fruit knob to get into the kernel, chisel the embryo to form small grooves to lay eggs. Young caterpillars feed on seed embryos. Usually weevils destroy only one kernel, but when the number of weevils increases, they also destroy the remaining kernel, usually found in the fruits at the end of the harvest and between two harvests.
The life cycle of the fruit borer varies from 45-54 days. Weeds focus on damaging ripe fruits, especially those that dry up on trees and fall on the ground. The average number of adults per fruit in the first months of the crop is 0.9 – 2.1. The average number of adults in a ripe fruit is 10.0 – 92.0. The number of adult weevils on dried fruit increased from February to April and then decreased as the fruit ripened. For young fruit, most weevils go in and leave, the harder the kernel, the higher the percentage of weevils until October (about 8 months old) is the perfect time for weevils. Weevils appear on all three varieties of coffee: Arabica Coffee, Robusta, jackfruit, in addition, weevils are also found on some trees such as: Cot gas, yellow flower, ma beans, acacia rooster.
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation measures:
Sanitize the field after harvesting by taking advantage of all the dried and ripe fruits left on the trees and in the ground. Stored at humidity from 12.5% - 13.9%, all adult weevils will die. Therefore, it is recommended to store the seeds at a moisture content of less than 13%.
+ Chemical measures:
Can spray one of the drugs such as Diazinon ( Danasu 50EC ), Deltamethrin (Decis 2.5 EC).
- Aphids, brown scale aphids, green scale aphids
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms:
+ Aphids: There are 2 types of black and blue that are similar in shape. Adults are winged or wingless. Bed bugs give birth straight. Young and adult bed bugs are similar in shape, enlarged abdomen, and 2 exudate tubes at the end of the body. Damage to many crops such as tea, coffee, citrus … aphids cling to the tops of young leaves to absorb fluid, making the young leaves curl and develop abnormally. Aphids develop all year round, but most often when coffee leaves young.
+ Brown scale mealybug: Adult female is wingless and covered with a brown, swollen hemispherical 2-3mm long. Male adults have wings 1.2mm long, pale yellow-green color. Small eggs are laid in nests under the shell of the female, when hatching, aphids do not have a light yellow oval shell, aphids cling to branches and leaves to suck plant juices, making branches less developed. Bed bugs are often harmful in the dry season.
+ Green scale mealybug: Adult female without wings, flattened body, soft and green shell. Young aphids yellow green. Green scale aphid also attaches to leaves and young branches to suck plant juices, making leaves turn yellow.
– Prevention measures: Use the following: Acephate (Lancer 50SP); Benfuracarb (Oncol 20EC); Chlorpyrifos Ethyl (Pyritox 480EC); Fenobucarb (Nibas 50EC); Alpha-Cypermethrin (Fastac 5EC); Imidacloprid (Confidor 100SL); Alpha – cypermethrin + Profenofos (Profast 210EC)
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms: In Lam Dong, there are 2 species of cicadas appearing on coffee:
+ Small species: Identified as Purana guttularis Walker, belonging to the family Cicadidae, the order Homoptera.
+ Large species: (3 species) + 1 species is identified with the scientific name Pomponia sp , belonging to the family Cicadidae, the order Homoptera.
+ 2 unidentified species. Most species of cicadas have a life cycle of 2 to 5 years, with some species having a life cycle of 13 to 17 years. The above cicada species have not yet determined the exact life cycle.
Females use egg laying trays to cut into small dried branches to lay eggs (diameter 0.5-1cm), in addition, cicadas also lay eggs under the bark of the trunk, or on wooded branches. Eggs are laid scattered or in clusters of about 10-20 eggs. Each female can lay 400-600 eggs or about 40-50 eggs. Egg development time is from 4-14 weeks depending on species and environmental conditions. After hatching, the 1st-year-old larvae will fall to the ground, the larvae dig deep underground from 15-40cm to start the larval phase lasting 2-17 years. The larvae feed on the root system of the plant for survival. Cicada pupae suck sap from plant roots and have strong forelimbs to move from root to root. After 5 molts, they reach their maximum size and dig a tunnel out of the ground to molt. Once on the ground they cling to trees, cracks the old skin along the back and molts one last time to become an adult cicada. The larvae come to the stage to crawl up from the ground at night, they climb on branches and leaves to prepare for the final molt into adults. The 13-17 year old species usually dances at the same time, coincidentally in a few days (usually mid-May and early June). Species 2- 7 years usually dance from April to September every year. Adult cicadas only live for 2-4 weeks. Both males and females do not eat during this period, their sole role is to perform the reproductive function to maintain the species, for which the energy used to perform this function has been carefully prepared. for many months while on the ground. Male cicadas sing songs to seduce a mate. Female cicadas do not call. After mating and laying eggs, they complete their life cycle.
The coffee garden is damaged by cicadas: The tree is stunted, the leaves are yellow, the branches are poorly developed, the shoots and leaves are few, if lightly damaged, the tree is still green, the coffee leaves will go up, if In severe cases, leaves fall, abnormal green fruit drop, young fruit development is slow even after fertilizing at the beginning of the rainy season. The hairy roots at a depth of 0 -15cm grow slowly, some roots are black, rotten from the root tip due to some species of fungi, nematodes attacking the root position damaged by cicada larvae. On the trunk, branches and leaves of coffee, a lot of dead larvae were discovered.
– Cause of the outbreak of cicadas: Due to the imbalance of the field ecosystem. The decrease in natural enemies to catch prey, bees, ants, spiders, ladybugs, pincers’ tails, etc., has resulted in a strong outbreak of cicadas and a number of fungi and nematodes that parasitize the roots of coffee trees after the cicada larva larvae. damage the roots, they attack the damaged location of the roots.
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation measures: Create canopy, prune branches open to limit adult laying eggs; collect all the dry branches, the bark of the tree trunks that have rotted at the mature place so that the eggs can be burned to reduce the density of tick eggs in the field; every year after harvesting, it is necessary to rake the tub to create an unfavorable living environment for young cicada larvae (age 1-2); Using a motorcycle toothpick, poke down the holes to kill the larvae; Use plastic film to cover the ground around the base of the tree to prevent cicada larvae from entering the ground after hatching. Or use plastic wrap around the coffee tree during the period of strong growth of cicadas from May to September to catch the adults, and apply fertilizer in a reasonable balance. Follow the process of sustainable coffee farming .
+ Biological measures: At the time of cicadas blooming in May-September, light traps are used to attract adults to kill traps. According to the monitoring results in 2008, the most time cicadas enter the lights is from 6:30 to 7 pm. Note that the type of light bulb used in the trap must be a high-pressure bulb from 400-500W. When using this method, it is recommended to use a mosquito net as a screen to prevent cicadas from easily catching traps, on the other hand, if you place traps in areas far from residential areas, with less light, the ability to attract them is higher.
Protecting natural enemies capable of limiting the damage of some coffee pests such as ants, spiders, bees, red ladybugs, yellow-eyed beetles… by using drugs that repel ants In the period of strong growth of aphids, highly toxic drugs should not be used to destroy ants.
Use biological products such as: Mushroom Metarhizium anisopliae to prevent larvae: use Metament 90DP product with dosage: 600g drug + 3 -5 liters of water/root depending on the age of the coffee tree. Or the product Bemetent with the composition of 3 strains of fungi (Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Entomophthora sp) with the dosage of 5g/liter of water, watering 2 liters/root.
Yellow ants, snakes, birds, wasps are natural enemies of cicadas. Ants eat baby cicadas that have just hatched or molted after burrowing into the ground. Minimize the use of chemical drugs to destroy white vegetation (weeds) in order to maintain the soil flora and keep the plant root system rich, creating more food sources for larvae.
+ Chemical measures: For cicada larvae, it is necessary to regularly check the coffee roots, when detecting young larvae appearing, then proceed to treatment.
When using insecticides, it should be carried out at the stage of newly hatched cicada larvae, it is necessary to carefully scratch the layer of dry leaves, grass, and topsoil to reveal the mouth of the larvae, then treat by spraying. Apply all kinds of granular drugs, fill with soil and water. Alternate using one of the following drugs: Diazinon (Cazinon 10 H); Fipronil (Regent 0.3GR, Suphu 10GR); Chlorpyrifos Methyl (Sago – Super 3 G); Chlorpyrifos Ethyl + Permethrin (Tasodant 6G)
- Rust(Hemileia vastatrix)
– Damage characteristics and symptoms: The disease damages the leaves, at first the lesions are small yellow round spots, then the disease gradually enlarges and there is a very bright orange-yellow chalk layer on the underside of the leaves. Severe disease makes leaves yellow and fall, stunted growth. The disease is caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatri , the spores are dispersed and spread by wind, insects and care workers. Spores can withstand many months in conditions that are not conducive to germination. Spores germinate quickly at 24 0 C after 2-4 hours and grow rapidly at 80-90% humidity. The incubation period is 6-12 hours. Coffee varieties in Vietnam are infected with rust. Arabica was infected the most, followed by Exelsa and Robusta.
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation measures: Fully and balanced fertilization, ventilation, reasonable pruning to help plants grow well. Use resistant varieties such as: S.73, Catimor F6. Limit the use of varieties susceptible to rust such as Caturra, Typica, Mundo Novo…
+ Chemical measures: The following drugs can be used thoroughly on both sides of leaves such as : Hexaconazole (Anvil 5SC, Annongvin 50 SC,); Propiconazole (Tilt 250 EC, Bumper 250 EC); Diniconazole (Nicozol 25 SC); Chlorothalonil (Forwanil 50SC); Mancozeb (Penncozeb 80 WP, Dithane F-448 43SC); Carbendazim (Daphavil 50 SC, Arin 25SC); Triadimefon (Bayleton 250 EC, Encoleton 25 WP); Difenoconazole + Propiconazole (Tilt Super 300EC, Tinitaly surper 300.5EC); Isoprothiolane + Propiconazole (Tung super 300EC) ; Carbendazim + Tricyclazole + Validamycin (Carzole 20 WP)
- Anthracnose( Anthracnose )
– Characteristics and symptoms of damage: Caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloesporioides Caused under conditions of weakened plants due to lack of nutrients, the disease causes damage at all stages of plant growth, but the disease thrives when coffee flowers and fruits. Heavy rain in the evening disperses the spores and infects the fruit. The disease affects the leaves, fruits, branches and stems of coffee; On leaves, the disease penetrates to the tips of leaves or leaf blades, the initial symptoms are brown patches with many concentric rings, then spreading to dark brown or black brown. The lesions appear many linked together into large patches causing the leaves to dry and fall; on branches and trunks: The disease attacks on branches at the stages of woodturning and penetrates into the tips of fruit-bearing branches through cracks in the leaves. On the branches, there are brown depressions that make the bark turn black and dry. Severe illness, The fungus penetrates the large branches and spreads to the trunk, causing the leaves to fall and the branches to become dry and black. Infected stem tissue also turns black; On the fruit the fungus attacks at the fruit maturity stage of 6-7 months. Lesions are brown spots in the rind of different sizes and shapes. The disease appears to start at the place where the stem is attached or at the point of contact between the two fruits, where water can collect. Severe disease causes leaves, branches, and fruits to dry black and fall, leaving branches bare.
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation measures: Fully fertilizer to provide nutrients for plants, use shade trees. Cut and collect infected branches and destroy them.
+ Chemical measures: Alternate one of the following drugs: Propineb (Antracol 70WP, Newtracon 70 WP) ; Copper Hydrocide (Kocide 53.8DF); Mancozeb (Manozeb 80WP); Carbendazim (Carban 50SC, Binhnavil 50SC) ; Hexaconazole (Tungvil 5SC) ; Validamycin (Tossing suitcase 3SL) ; Hexaconazole + Tricyclazole ( Forvilnew 250SC ).
- Crab eye disease(Cercospra offeicola)
– Characteristics and symptoms of damage: The disease is caused by the fungus Cercospora coffeicola under conditions of weakened plants due to lack of nutrients. Harmful on leaves, fruits, branches. Severely diseased trees are often barren, slow to grow, yellow and fall leaves, yellow and ripe fruits. Lesions on leaves and fruits are usually round, with many concentric rings in the center, gray in the middle with small black dots, around red-brown, yellow outside. On branches, lesions run along the length of the branch. Severely damaged fruit may be partially or completely black rot. The disease occurs commonly in nurseries and basic establishment time. The disease develops year-round especially on poorly maintained gardens, lacking fertilizer or planted on bad soil.
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation measures: Can plant shade trees, fertilize fully and reasonably so that the plants have enough disease resistance.
+ Chemical measures: Use the drug Hexaconazole (Dibazole 10 SC)
- Pink fungus (Corticium salmonicolor)
– Characteristics and symptoms of damage: The disease causes damage on fruit and branches. First on the fruit or branches appear very small white dots like chalk dust. These dots multiply to form a thin layer of chalk that later becomes pink, which is the spores of the fungus. If it occurs on the branch, it is usually located on the underside of the branch, if it is on the fruit, it is usually from the fruit stalk. The disease develops along the branches and gradually spreads to the whole fruit, causing the branches to die and dry, the fruit to wilt and drop young. This is a serious disease on coffee, tea, and coffee beans are also scattered. Basic coffee trees can die if seriously ill. On commercial coffee, the disease often damages each tree locally, causing death of each branch, if severe, half of the tree’s canopy can be killed. So far, there has not been a phenomenon of death of commercial coffee trees due to pink fungus.
The disease is suitable for conditions of high humidity but a lot of light. Therefore, in orchards, the disease usually occurs in the middle and upper floors, less often in the lower floors. The disease develops very quickly on trees, the rate of death of branches is very fast. But spreading from one plant to another is slow. The development time of the disease is also not long. The disease usually arises from June, July, develops strongly from July to September, peaks in September. The onset and development of the disease is greatly influenced by air humidity. In a year with a lot of rain and high air humidity, the disease is more severe. The coffee gardens are dense, the shape is not well-ventilated, and the damp orchards are often more seriously ill.
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation measures: Create ventilation for the garden, regularly check the orchard, especially in years with heavy rain to detect diseases early. Then cut and burn the diseased branches. On black coffee, if the diseased branches are removed in time, it can prevent pink fungus without the need to use chemical drugs.
+ Chemical measures: Use the following drugs: Validamycin (Validacin 3L, Valivithaco 3L, Suitcase 5DD); Copperhydroxide (Champion 77WP); Hexaconazole (Annongvin 200SC, Tungvil 5SC, Anvil 5SC, Saizole 5SC); Carbendazim (Arin 25SC); Carbendazim + Hexaconazole (Vilusa 5.5SC ) ; Carbendazim + Tricyclazole + Validamycin (Carzole 20 WP)
- Root rot disease:
– Damage characteristics and symptoms: The disease is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia sp + Fusarium Oxysporum + Pythium in the rainy season, mainly on 2-year-old coffee. The disease is harmful even in the nursery. Plants grow slowly, yellow leaves are easily confused with yellow leaves due to poor care and lack of nutrition. A part of the root neck (the part of the stem that is adjacent to the stake roots, about 20-30cm from the ground) is gradually disappearing inward, then the defect is deeper, the tree turns yellow and dies.
– Prevention measures: Coffee land must have thick cultivation layer, good drainage, low groundwater. Seedlings must meet planting standards and be free from pests and diseases. Plant windbreaks. Avoid wounding the base of the tree through weeding and shoot close to the base. Severely damaged trees need to be uprooted and burned. Then treat the pit as for root rot before replanting. For lightly damaged plants, alternately use the following drugs Salicylic Acid Derivatives ( Song Lam 33350EC) ; Trichoderma viride (Biobus 1.00WP); Validamicin (Valijapane 3SL).
- Root rot disease:
– Characteristics and symptoms of damage: The disease is mainly caused by the fungus Fusarium sp ., usually appearing in the middle of the rainy season on 2-year-old coffee. The soil-borne fungus enters the plant through the wound. The tree grows slowly, the root is long, the root collar is black, smaller than the trunk, the wood inside is dry, the disease develops and spreads very quickly, causing the leaves to wilt and die.
– Measures to prevent: As for root rot disease.
- Root rot:
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms: Mainly caused by nematodes that damage roots, creating favorable conditions for some fungal diseases to enter and cause harm. At the beginning of the dry season, when the rain stops, the trees show signs of yellowing due to rotten and broken roots, and strong growth of hairy roots near the ground. Plants with heavy hairy roots also rot. Due to the lack of roots, diseased plants are prone to tilt in strong winds and are easy to uproot by hand.
– Prevention measures: Uproot the plants with root rot, dig and dry holes in the dry season, then treat the holes as above before replanting.
Treat pits before planting by liming (1kg/hole), prevent Ethoprophos nematodes ( Vimoca 20ND) 15 days before planting. Use active ingredient Chaetomium cupreum (Ketomium 1.5 x 10 6 cfu/g powder ) to limit root rot.
- Silky root rot:
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms: The disease is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia Bataticola + Fusarium Oxysporum . Diseased plants grow slowly, the leaves turn yellow, the hairy roots are black rot from the root tip. Trees with large roots also suffer from black rot from the outer bark, making the tree exhausted because it cannot absorb nutrients and die. The disease is harmful to both commercial coffee and basic coffee. The tree usually shows yellow from September onwards and in the dry season it decreases, if it is light, the tree will be green again after watering, but next year the tree will be again.
– Control measures: Apply fertilizers fully and in balance, increase the application of organic fertilizers and biological products to improve the soil. Limit plowing and making pots in diseased orchards to avoid causing damage to the roots. Do not water spills from diseased gardens to non-infected gardens. The drainage system needs to be adjusted properly. For lightly damaged plants, nematodes can be used to water around the base every 10-15 days. For severely damaged trees, it is necessary to dig and burn the diseased trees, then treat the pits as for pile root rot.
- Root rot disease:
– Characteristics and symptoms of damage: The disease is caused by the fungus Fomes noxius + Fusarium sp + Rhizoctonia . The disease usually appears during the rainy season in the coffee business. Lightly damaged plants: stunted plants, poor growth, poor development, peel off root collar bark, root collar softer than normal trees; severely damaged tree: root neck is soft, the root part is dry, the whole inner system is black and dry, the tree is bare, the branches are bare, causing the tree to die.
– Preventive measures:
Fertilizer is adequate, balanced and reasonable. It is necessary to apply decaying organic fertilizers and soil improvement products. Regularly monitor plants to detect pests and take timely preventive measures. Dig and burn diseased trees, treat pits with drugs such as root rot and hairy roots.
- Root nematode( Pratylenchus coffeae Meloidogyne spp. )
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms:
The main cause of the disease is the nematode Pratylenchus coffeae combined with many fungi, mainly Fusarium solani , Fusarium oxysporum . , in some cases also in association with mealybugs. These parasites are present in the soil and roots of old coffee plantations and only weaken these gardens but easily kill the basic established coffee when replanted. Nematodes damage all types of coffee age, including in the nursery stage. Arabica Coffee are often harmed more heavily than coffee. In the field, the first symptom is usually a patch or area of poor growth while the surrounding plants are growing well. The most obvious symptoms are poor plant growth, lack of nutrients (yellowing of leaves), wilting in hot or dry weather, reduced yield and quality. In coffee trees at the basic stage of establishment, the disease occurs mainly on replanted gardens on old coffee gardens and business gardens that have been damaged by nematodes. The tree has very obvious yellowing symptoms at the beginning of the dry season. after the rain stops and has not been watered because the stake roots are rotten and transversely broken. The hairy roots near the ground thrive, in heavy trees the hairy roots also rot. In the rainy season, if well cared for, the trees are still green thanks to the hairy root system near the ground, but because there are no roots, the diseased plants are prone to tilt when there is strong wind. Diseased plants are easy to uproot by hand.
On commercial coffee, diseased trees are slow to grow (although they have been cared for and fertilized fully), leaves turn yellow, which is easy to mistake for symptoms of yellow leaves due to poor care and lack of nutrition, dry branches. , hairy roots are black rotted from the root tip. In heavy trees, large roots also rot from the outer bark, the roots are rotted, gradually the tree cannot absorb nutrients and die. Plants usually show yellow leaves from August, September onwards and in the dry season it decreases. If the disease is mild, the plants will turn green after watering, but in the rainy season next year, they will turn yellow again.
For business coffee gardens, the disease often occurs in gardens with high yield for a long time but without the addition of organic fertilizers as well as disproportionate chemical fertilizers, which makes the plants exhausted and reduces their resistance to disease. resistance. Plant-damaging nematodes mainly live in the soil. The eggs of the nematodes can survive for a long time in soil and on plant residues in the absence of a host plant or when conditions are unfavorable.
The rate of dead trees in gardens that are not carefully trawled and collected after liquidation can be up to 70 – 80%. High soil moisture creates favorable conditions for the development of nematodes, but too wet or too dry soil also kills the nematodes. Most nematodes die at a temperature of 50-55 0 C. Nematodes can move with water, so overflow irrigation will create favorable conditions for the disease to spread quickly. Digging and dredging in diseased gardens also creates conditions for the disease to spread and develop because of wounding the roots.
– Preventive measures:
+ In the nursery: Do not use soil with a source of nematodes to nurse plants. The location of the nursery must be changed if nematodes are detected.
+ For basic replanting coffee: During the reclamation process, you have to check the roots many times, pick up the old roots that are left over. Then, measures must be taken to improve the soil, rotate crops with short-term crops or green manure crops for at least 2-3 years. Treat pits before planting by burning holes, liming (1 kg/hole) in combination with fertilizing manure, spreading nematode drugs such as Mocap 10G (50g/root), Vimoca 20ND (0.3%, 2 liters of solution). solution/stock), Oncol 20EC (0.3%, 2 liters solution/stock).
+ For business coffee: Ensure technical processes such as intercropping, shade trees, forest belts to block wind to create stable yield for orchards, Adequate and balanced fertilization, and at the same time strengthening the application of organic fertilizers and biological products to improve soil, especially for orchards that have given high yields for many years, limit plowing and make pots in diseased orchards to avoid the spread of diseases. through damage to the roots; do not irrigate from diseased garden to disease-free garden.
Chemistry cannot be considered as the main measure in the control of nematodes because it is both expensive and ineffective. Moreover, most of the anti-nematode drugs are very toxic to humans. Therefore, the use of chemical drugs to control nematodes is very limited. When new plants are sick, drugs can be used Ethoprophos (Vimoca 20ND), Benfuracarb (Oncol 5G-20EC-25WP), Cytokinin ( Geno 2005 2SL, Sincocin 0.56SL ; Paecilomyces ( Palila 500 WP) .
- Coffee leaf yellowing disease:
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms:
+ Yellowing leaves due to incomplete or untimely fertilization: Due to untimely fertilization, the amount of fertilizer is less than the needs of the tree, leading to a lack of nutrients, barren trees, yellow leaves. series. In this case, coffee fruit only falls on underdeveloped trees, small fruits, fall in fruit clusters near the base of the front, the tip of the branches behind, accompanied by a lot of leaf loss.
+ Yellowing leaves due to unbalanced fertilizer application: Due to unbalanced NPK fertilizer application such as high nitrogen and low potassium application, leading to strong growth of branches, young leaves are still green, old leaves are yellow from old leaves. leaf apex downward, leaf margin back, older leaves yellow first from the lower branch to the upper branch, yellow from the inside of the branch outward. Trees can drop fruit mass when encountering heavy rain, small fruit, much fall, fruit near the root falls first.
+ Due to lack of medium and micronutrients: The coffee garden is fully fertilized with NPK elements, but the leaves are yellow in different areas on the leaf blade, the leaves may be smaller than usual, the young shoots are slow to develop or abnormal development, small fruit or few fruits … due to lack of middle and micronutrients.
The leaves of zinc deficiency are usually smaller, the dark green veins are prominently prominent on the leaf blade background, turning from light green to pale yellow, the short apex is developed in clusters, the leaf margins are curved up.
Iron deficiency often appears on young leaves. The leaves are yellow but the veins are still green, almost like zinc deficiency.
Boron deficiency usually occurs in the apical shoots of the main stem and the horizontal branches turn yellow or die, leading to the branches developing into fan-shaped clusters. Leaves are smaller than normal and deformed with margins, leaves are olive green or yellow-green in the bottom half of the leaf blade, leaves are thin, left petioles weak.
Lack of calcium, young leaves are often yellow from the edge of the leaf to the middle of the leaf blade, leaving only a dark green leaf area along the two main veins, the fruit is easy to fall.
Magnesium deficiency in leaves begins to yellow from the main veins of the leaf and then spreads near the margins of the leaves in the mid-vein area of the leaf.
Manganese deficiency manifests as pale yellow in the last pair of mature leaves, which then turn bright lemon yellow with white spots.
Lack of sulfur most leaves are pale yellow, then turn bright yellow.
+ Due to old trees: Trees show signs of slow growth: few nutritious branches and overshoots, fruit gradually shrinking, underdeveloped hairy roots, barren plants despite being fully fertilized, yellowing leaves mass .
Dry branch disease, dry fruit, pink fungus disease, yellow leaf disease caused by nematodes, fungi, cicada larvae, branch borers, fruit borers, mealybugs are also causes of yellowing of leaves of eggplant Batch coffee.
– Preventive measures:
+ Cultivation measures: Pruning overhanging shoots, branches in the canopy, toothpicks and excess branches to concentrate on fruit nutrition, pruning dry, old branches, branches affected by pests and diseases to create a clear garden and fertile trees. Growth, sound development, increased resistance to pests and diseases, limiting the spread of diseases that cause fruit drop. Regularly collect diseased branches, leaves and fruits, dry them and burn them to prevent infection.
+ Balanced and proper fertilisation: If the coffee garden is in the fruiting stage, but the fruit drop is due to inadequate and unbalanced fertilisation (fertilising more nitrogen and less potassium), the amount of fertiliser must be added immediately. NPK fertiliser is prescribed at the fruit-growing stage (from 700-1000kg NPK (16-16-8)/ha depending on the level of fruit development in the garden), and at the same time combines the use of foliar fertilisers.
To limit fruit drop due to lack of nutrition, ensure annual coffee yield and quality. Farmers should implement the fertilising process for commercial coffee (4 years old and up)
In the case of coffee with symptoms of deficiency of trace elements, it is possible to provide micronutrients for coffee by foliar spraying with compounds containing essential elements such as Zn, Bo…
+ Chemical measures: For leaf yellowing disease caused by pests and diseases, use the drugs that have been specifically recommended for each object as guided in the above section.
- Body rot( Fusarium spp.)
– Harmful characteristics and symptoms:
Disease caused by the fungus Fusarium spp cause. This is a fungus that causes vascular occlusion and causes death very quickly. The disease usually occurs in poorly ventilated, humid gardens or after years of heavy rain and high humidity. The disease appears in primary and commercial gardens, often appearing on the wooded trunk. The disease causes cracking and black rot of the outer bark of the trunk. If severe, the inner wood layer dries, leading to vascular occlusion, the tree lacks water, so it wilts and dries from the top down. Lesions can appear anywhere on the tree’s trunk but are usually in the middle and near the base of the tree. The disease develops and spreads rapidly.
– Prevention measures: It is necessary to detect the disease early when the trunk has just cracked or has small black rot. Use a razor to clean the diseased body shell, then handle pesticides according to instructions. If the tree has dried tops, it is necessary to cut across and burn the diseased part, apply for the medicine on the sawed stem surface and grow new shoots.
VI. PROCESSING AND STORAGE:
- Processing: There are 2 main processing methods:
– Dry processing: Dry the whole fruit after harvesting. Cons: berries take a long time to dry, quickly moldy, and the flavor quality of cup coffee is reduced. For Arabica Coffee, this method should be limited.
– Wet processing: As the primary processing method for Arabica Coffee, this method produces coffee products of much higher quality than dry processing. How to do: Ripe fruit is harvested daily and rubbed fresh that same day by a manual machine. Then use water to remove the pods, decant all the water and let it ferment. Note: Do not use metal containers. If you want to know if the fermentation process is complete, use your fingernail to scratch it. If it is rough and the grain slots are completely clean, the fermentation is done; take it out, wash it, and dry it.
Drying is a stage that significantly influences the quality of coffee.
– How to dry: Dry the freshly harvested coffee cherries (dry processing) or wet paddy coffee cherries (wet processing) on a cement yard, brickyard or on a mat, do not dry the coffee on the ground. The layer of dried coffee needs to be spread thinly to dry, frequently turning quickly at least once. When biting the beans, if they do not break, the coffee is considered to be completely dry and can be stored.
Dried (or dried) coffee is stored in clean sacks, wooden crates, pots or in a well-ventilated warehouse, not subject to moisture. Depending on the requirements of the coffee buyer, the product can be consumed in the form of dried berries, dehydrated coffee, or ground into green coffee for sale.