The Certified Robusta Coffee Varieties In Vietnam: Processing high-quality coffee to supply to the market starts at the stage of identifying and selecting raw materials from the fruit source of the cultivated line in the coffee garden.
After three to four years have been planted, the coffee tree becomes mature and bears fruit. At first, white flowers swallow, fragrant, growing in clusters from the leaf axils of the branch. Then, the pods grow in long clusters like chains. Arabica coffee plants are self-pollinated, while Robusta is dependent on cross-pollination. After 30-35 weeks of flowering, the fruit will ripen and become beautiful.
In Vietnam, Robusta coffee varieties selected by the Central Highlands Agroforestry Science and Technology Institute for clonal propagation by young grafting in the coffee tree replanting program include some main types: TR4; TR5; TR6; TR7; TR8.
- Variety TR4: Strong growth, medium-tall tree, branching a lot, branches slightly droopy. Leaves are medium-sized, pale green young leaves, yellowish-green in old color, lanceolate. The ripe fruit is red-orange has an inverted egg shape. The number of fruit/kg: 750-800. Medium size seeds, fresh / kernel ratio: 4.1. Weight 100 people: 17.1g. Grade 1 seeds: 70.9%. Caffeine content: 1.68g / 100g dry matter. Yield is about 7 tons per hectare, and the annual harvest time is from November 15 to December 15. High resistance to rust
- Variety TR5: Plants grow robust and medium height, average branching, and droopy branches. Leaves are medium, round, bright green in young leaves and dark green in old leaves. Ripe fruit has blood color, round fruit, number of fruit/kg: 650-700. Seeds are enormous, fresh / kernel ratio: 4.4, weight 100 kernel: 20.6g, seed type 1: 90.5%. The yield is about 5 tons per hectare. The annual harvest time is from November 1 to November 30.
- Variety TR6: plants grow well, of medium height, with little branching, and branches spread horizontally. The leaves are medium, lanceolate, the color of young leaves: bright green, the color of old leaves is dark green. The ripe fruit is orange-yellow, round shape, amount of fruit /kg: from 790 to 800 fruits. Seeds of medium size, fresh ratio/kernel 4.3. Weight of 100 kernels: 17.5g, grade 1 seeds: 75.0%.Caffeine content: 1.95g / 100g dry matter. The yield is relatively high, about 6 Tons/ha; the annual harvest time is 15/12 to 15/1—very high resistance to rust.
- Variety TR7: Strong growth, medium-tall tree, branching a lot, branches spread horizontally. The leaves are medium, lanceolate, the color of young leaves: bright green, the old leaves are dark green. The ripe fruit is red-pink, inverted egg shape, about 734 fruits/kg. The fresh seeds/kernel ratio: 4.4 Weight of 100 kernels: 17.5g, grade 1 seeds: 72.8%. Caffeine content: 1.85g / 100g dry matter. High yield, 6 tons/ha, annual harvest time from 15/11 to 15/12. Very high resistance to rusting
- Variety TR8: plants grow very strong, medium-tall trees, medium branching, horizontal branches. The leaves are medium-lanceolate, and the young leaves are bright green. The color of the old leaves is dark green. Fruit ripe blood color, egg-shaped, with the knob, several fruits/kg: 650-670. The seeds are huge. Fresh / kernel ratio: 4.4. Weight of 100 kernels: 17.6g, grade 1 seeds: 68.4%. Caffeine content: 1.57g / 100g dry matter. Productivity is very high, 6-7 tons per hectare—annual harvest time from November 15 to December 15.
- According to the Central Highlands Agriculture and Forestry Science Institute statistics, up to 98.3% are the fundamental varieties, of which 85.2% are the seed produced by farmers. The breeding and development of Robusta coffee varieties are very rich. To understand, select and put into production and processing of high-quality Robusta coffee products, professional manufacturers, processors, and suppliers need a lot of effort, going to the field, researching, researching.
In addition to the above varieties of Robusta, we also have other dominant strains. Each category has its advantages and characteristics. The certified Robusta coffee varieties in Vietnam:
- Variety TR9: plants grow well, leaves are dark green, fruit, when ripe has blood color, huge fruit, good rust resistance, the rate of special seeds, is over 80%, yield 5.5 tons. / ha.
- Variety TR11: plants grow well, branches are skewed, components are tiny, leaves are yellowish-green, the fruits are red-pink when ripe, good rust resistance, the rate of grade I seed is over 80%, yield 4, 2 tons/ha.
- Variety TR12: plants grow strong, green leaves, fruits are enormous, fruits when ripe red, good rust resistance, the rate of special seeds is over 90%, yield 4.3 tons/ha.
- Variety TR13: plants grow solid and horizontal branches, dark green leaves, fruit is enormous, the fruit is red-pink when ripe, good rust resistance, the rate of special seeds is over 90%, yield 5.2 tons/ha.