Vietnamese Arabica Origin: Arabica has not been commensurate in Vietnam’s coffee industry for more than 30 years. Since the 1980s, the coffee industry has not taken measures to prevent pests for Arabica coffee, so there has been a policy to expand the area of Robusta coffee on basalt red land in the Central Highlands provinces.
Up to now, Vietnam has produced about 1 million tons of coffee of all kinds, of which mainly coffee and is the world leader in this coffee production. In contrast, Arabica coffee accounts for only a deficient proportion in the Vietnamese coffee industry. This article will introduce you to Vietnamese Arabica Origin.
The position of Arabica coffee in Vietnam’s coffee industry
In the last 30 years, coffee cultivation has flourished in our country. From the country, there are only a tens of thousands of hectares of coffee of all kinds.
Up to now, there have been about 535,000 hectares of coffee, of which Robusta coffee (coffee) accounts for 93%, Arabica coffee is over 6% and jackfruit coffee has only less than 1%. However, because of the low commercial value, the area of jackfruit coffee is decreasing(Doan Zhao Tern 2011).
For coffee plants(Coffea Canephora)grown in our country, most are Robusta for high yield and disease resistance. Since the 1980s, the coffee industry has not taken effective pest control measures for Arabica coffee, so there has been a policy to expand the area of coffee on basalt red land in the Central Highlands provinces.
Up to now, Vietnam has produced about 1 million tons of coffee of all kinds annually but still lacks significant Arabica coffee production.
The beginning of Vietnam’s coffee tree
Arabica coffee plants (Coffee Arabica) were previously grown quite widely in the Northwich, the primary strain being Typica and was partly Bourbon. However, because of the harmful effects of pests, mainly white worms (xylotrechins quadrupeds chev), also known as Bore worms and rust (caused by hemiplegia vastatrix fungus).
We have not been into the development plan. In the last 20 years, due to the positive results of breeding, with the introduction of Catimor Arabica coffee (a hybrid between Timor Hybrid and Caturra)that is resistant to rust, we have raised the issue of expanding the area of Arabica coffee.
We produced the Cartimor F6 Arabica coffee plant in 1996. We continue to study the breeding and introduction of Arabica coffee varieties for high yield, large grain size, and improved drinking water quality compared to Catimor as TN1 varieties, TN2. Up to now, Arabica coffee has been interested in many localities, included in the development plan, and has achieved positive results.
However, in order to have a proper and highly effective Arabica coffee development program in Vietnam, the study of natural- economic and socio-economic conditions to exploit the potential of the climate and land of ecological regions in our country is a necessary and needs to be invested more.
Three regions in the Arabica coffee farming point
First, we must recall the “S” shape of Vietnam stretching across the northern latitude, from 8.35′ (Ca Mau Cape) to 23.33′ (Ha Giang Dong). That means that our country is located in the dark spaces for the growth of coffee trees (from about 23 degrees north latitude to 23 degrees south latitude).
There are about 70 coffee-growing countries worldwide, all within about 1,000 miles (1609.34 km) of the equator (between the northern and southern solstice) – Jessica Easto, Craft Coffee, 2017
This “natural element,” plus suitable soil conditions such as basalt soil, preferred height, and relative rainfall … Has allowed the robust farming industry to require a hot and humid climate in the south. Arabica varieties adapt to a milder environment in the north(some highlands are scattered in the south).
Incidentally, this is a strategy to reasonably exploit the whole country’s land, environment, and labor potential, bringing high efficiency. Here are three eco-regions for coffee cultivation in the country:
Northwest Coffee Region
Northwest Vietnam is a region with complex, divided terrain, including some medium mountains and high mountains surrounding large and small basins, including plateaus such as Son La plateau Moc Chau plateau.
The Hoang Lien Son Range runs a block in the northwest-southeast direction as a wall dividing the Northwest into two climatic zones: east Of Lien Son and West Hoang Lien Son. Dien Bien, Lai Chau, Son La are provinces in Tay Hoang Lien Son, is a low mountainous region with an altitude of 500 to 1500 m hidden behind the Hoang Lien Son range very favorable for Hoang Lien Son. Coffee farming.
At the same time, when referring to the Northwest, it can also be mentioned the territory is located on the right bank of the Red River of Lao Cai and Yen Bai provinces. Yen Bai highland districts such as Zhen Yen Tan Tan Station. These are the most viable coffee farming areas.
Central Arabica Coffee – Rich Tradition
Next to the northwest Arabica coffee region is the central strip with two large areas: Thanh Nghe Tinh is mainly Nghe An, and Binh Tri Thien is mainly Quang Tri. These two regions are restricted by the Rah Son mountain range of Truong Son northern strip to eat right to the sea and connect the famous Horizontal Pass.
It should also be added that the first Arabicacoffee tree was put into trial planting in sen bang church – Quang Binh. But the Arabica coffee area was started from the coffee plantations of Phu Quy Nghe An in the early 1910s.
Since then, coffee has been known to many people since the 1960s. Phu Quy Tropical Tree Research Station is the first scientific and technical agency of our country established in April 1960 on this land.
Today, traditional Arabica varieties (Catimor) are planted before. The Central Highlands Institute of Agricultural and Forestry Economic Sciences has bred many varieties of Arabica coffee with high productivity and high quality, such as TN1 and TN to put melons into cultivation in Khe Sanh (Quang Tri) and Phu Quy (Nghe An).
Highland coffee region and the advantages
Across Hai Van Pass to the south, the hot and humid tropical climate is suitable for Robusta coffee. And this is the area that develops half a million hectares of coffee in our country and brings our country to the top position in coffee production globally. However, there are still areas with a specific climate suitable for Arabica coffee plants in this vast southern climate.
What makes up these coffee regions is the altitude above sea level. The most typical is the Lam Dong Arabica coffee area. In addition to Lam Dong, there can be other highlands such as Kon Plong of Kon Tum province, Dak Nong province, and Vinh son region of Binh Dinh province.
Vietnam’s Arabica coffee development potential
From the above-stated contents, through the Arabica coffee regions throughout the country, we can see that it is necessary to determine the direction of Arabica coffee development in Vietnam more accurately.
We can become a producer of both coffee and coffee. Of the total coffee area of the country is defined as 500,000ha of coffee, it is possible to bring the size of Arabica coffee to over 100,000ha mainly in the regions: Lam Dong province and the Northwest region.
Some coffee areas can be considered Arabica coffee inappropriate through coffee plants’ re-cultivation. There is much to do to achieve this goal, such as researching the selection of Arabica coffee varieties to replace the existing Catimor variety, researching pest control measures, and significantly harming coffee roots such as nematodes wax aphids. At the same time, it is impossible not to think about the climate changes affecting coffee production in Vietnam.
The renewal of Arabica coffee
We have the technical basis for developing Arabica coffee production; this is a new breed in Vietnam (but not new worldwide) that meets production requirements. Arabica coffee is no longer an obstacle to agriculture but, on the contrary, is an opportunity to welcome the global wave of coffee development, and this is evident in the Arabica coffee research efforts of World Coffee Research, SCA…
The market’s demand for high-quality coffee is an unmissable trend. From the history of origin to the potential for quality, Arabica coffee rather than Robusta dominates the entire coffee industry worldwide. Let me give you a little more in this regard:
- First of all, the demand for coffee daily in stable markets changes upward even during economic crises – this is evidenced by the 300-year history of the world coffee industry in Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World.
- The second is that the demands of emerging markets also increase, coffee-producing countries also increase consumption. Brazil, the leading country in coffee production, currently ranks second in coffee consumption.
- In addition, the impact of a third wave of coffee in the market that requires high-quality coffee (possibly only Arabica coffee) is increasing, especially while cheap coffees such as instant coffee (made from Robusta) are losing their importance.
And so, the coffee market requires Arabica coffee to satisfy the world’s thirst for coffee. On the other hand, the growth of Arabica coffee production is prolonged – that small amount of change depends on three countries: Brazil, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Indonesia and Vietnam mainly focus on Robusta coffee, and Arabica coffee is not taken seriously. Above are some thoughts that may be many places that are not thorough, but with love for Vietnamese coffee trees, the author would like to present to study together boldly.
Source of reference:
- Rural Agricultural Development Information Center (NNNT) Argoinfo – Caffe Vietnam Magazine, Topic 6 (September 2011)