Vietnamese Coffee Beans Standards For Export: Vietnam National Coffee Export Standards

Vietnamese Coffee Exporter
Vietnamese Coffee Beans Standards in for Export Vietnam National Coffee Export Standards

Main Contents

Vietnam National Coffee Export Standards: Vietnamese Coffee Beans Standards

(TCVN 4193: 2014)

Preface

TCVN 4193:2014 replaces TCVN 4193:2005;

Vietnamese Coffee Beans Standards in for Export: TCVN 4193:2014 compiled by the Department of Agro-Forestry-Fisheries Processing and Salt Industry and Coffee and Import-Export Inspection Joint Stock Company, proposed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, General Department of Standards and Metrology Appraisal quality, announced by the Ministry of Science and Technology.

Vietnamese Coffee Beans Standards for Export

1. Scope of application

Vietnamese Coffee Beans Standards apply to green coffee: Arabica coffee beans and Robusta coffee bean.

2. References

The following documents are essential for the application of the standard.

  • TCVN 1279: 1993 Green coffee – Packaging, labeling, storage, and transportation.
  • TCVN 4334: 2007 (ISO 3509: 2005) Coffee and coffee products – Terms and definitions.
  • TCVN 4807: 2013 (ISO 4150: 2011) Green coffee and raw coffee – Particle size analysis – Method using machine and hand sieving.
  • TCVN 4808: 2007 (ISO 4149: 2005) Green coffee – Methods for visual inspection, determination of foreign matter and defects.
  • TCVN 5702: 1993 Green coffee – Sampling.
  • TCVN 6602: 2013 (ISO 8455: 2011) Green coffee – Guidelines for storage and transport.
  • TCVN 6928: 2007 (ISO 6673: 2003) Green coffee – Determination of loss in mass at 105°C.
  • TCVN 7032: 2007 (ISO 10470: 2004) Green coffee – Defects reference table.

3. Terms and definitions

In this standard, the terms and definitions are given in ISO 3509: 2005 and TCVN 7032: 2007 (ISO 10470: 2004), and the following terms and descriptions are used:

3.1. Defective beans error

All defects related to the coffee bean are specified in Annex A.

3.2. Foreign matter

All defects not related to the coffee bean are specified in Annex A.

4. Technical requirements

4.1. The quality classification of green coffee is specified in Table 1.

Table 1 – Quality classification of green coffee beans

Quality Grade

Type of coffee

Arabica

Robusta

1st place

1 18a

1 18a

1 16a

1 18b

1 16b

1 16a

1 16b

1 16c

2nd rank

2 14a

2 13a

2 13a

2 13b

2 13b

2 13c

Grade 3

3

4.2. Color:  Characteristic color of each type of green coffee.

4.3. Odor:  Characteristic smell of each type of green coffee, no strange smell.

4.4. Humidity:  Less than or equal to 12.5%.

4.5. Percentages of mixed types of coffee allowed in each class of coffee are specified in Table 2.

Table 2 – Percentage of mixed coffee of different types allowed

Type of coffee

1st place

2nd rank

Grade 3

Arabica

Do not mix R and C

Mixed R 1 % and C 0.5 %

Robusta

Mixing C 0.5 % and A 3 % is allowed.

Mixing C 1 % and A 5 % is permitted.

Mixing C 1 % and A 5 % is permitted.

Note

– A: Arabica, R: Robusta, C: Liberica

– %: Calculated as a percentage by mass.

4.6. The maximum allowable percentage of defective mass (error multiplication, impurities) for each grade of coffee is specified in Tables 3 and 4.

Table 3 – Permissible maximum mass of defects for each type of Arabica

Quality Grade

Multiply error, in %
mass

Impurities expressed as % by
mass

1st place

1 18a

6

0.1

1 16a

8

0.1

1 16b

10

0.1

2nd rank

2 14a

11

0.1

2 13a

12

0.1

2 13b

14

0.1

Table 4 – Permissible maximum mass of defects for each grade of black coffee

Quality Grade

Multiply error, in %
mass

Impurities expressed as % by
mass

1st place

1 18a

10

0.1

1 18b

15

0.5

1 16a

14

0.5

1 16b

16

0.5

1 16c

18

0.5

2nd rank

2 13a

17

0.5

2 13b

20

0.5

2 13c

24

1.0

Grade 3

3

70

5.0

4.7. The maximum allowable mass ratio for some defects is specified in Table 5.

Table 5 – Maximum allowable mass ratio for some defects

Arabica

Robusta

Quality Grade

Black kernel

In percent mass (%)

Quality Grade

Black kernel

Brown filling

Young human

In % by mass

1st place

1st place

1 18a

0.1

1 18 a

0.1

1 16a

0.1

1 18b

1.2

1.5

0.5

1 16b

0.1

1 16 a

0.6

1 16b

1.2

2.0

2.0

1 16c

2.0

2nd rank

2nd rank

2 14a

0.1

2 13a

0.6

2 13a

0.1

2 13b

2.0

3.0

3.0

2 13b

0.1

2 13c

3.5

4.0

5.0

Grade 3

Grade 3

3

4.8. The specified minimum mass per round sieve for each grade of coffee is specified in Table 6; sieve hole size specified in annex C

Table 6 – Minimum mass ratio per round hole defined for each stage of coffee

sieve size Type of Arabica
1 18 1 16 2 14 2 13
% mass
N°18/ 90/10
N°16
N°16 90
N°14 90
N°13 90

sieve size Robusta
1 18 1 16 2 13 3
% mass
N°18/ 90/10
N°16
N°16 90
N°13 90
N°12 90

 

5. Test method

5.1. Sampling, according to TCVN 5702: 1993.

5.2. Determine the appearance, according to TCVN 4808: 2007 (ISO 4149: 2005).

5.3. Determination of moisture content, according to TCVN 6928: 2007 (ISO 6673: 2003).

5.4. Determine the ratio of mixed coffee of different types

From the sample M about 300g is taken under 5.1; separate the coffee beans, robusta coffee, and coffee jackfruit, and weigh each obtained mass m I, in grams (g), where i  is the symbol for each type respectively.

Calculate the percentage of mixed coffee, I, by mass percent, according to formula (1):

Vietnamese standards for green coffee - recipe 1

In there:

M: mass of test piece.

For each indicator, conducted on two parallel samples. The difference between two similar test results shall not be more than 0,5 %. Take the final result as the average of the two results above.

5.5. Determination of mass defect ratio

From a test portion N of approximately 300 g taken according to 5.1, separate kernels of error and impurities and weigh each. Separate the black, brown, and young seed from the error kernel and consider each type. The masses obtained are j, in grams (g), where j  is the corresponding symbol for each class.

Calculate the ratio of each respective type,  j, by mass percent, according to formula (2):

Vietnamese standards for green coffee - recipe 2

Where: N mass of test piece

For each indicator, conducted on two parallel samples. The difference between two similar test results shall not be more than 0,5 %. Take the final result as the average of the two results above.

5.6. Determine the mass ratio per sieve, according to TCVN 4807: 2001 (ISO 4150: 1991).

6. Packaging, labeling, storage, and transportation

6.1. Packaging and labeling of green coffee,  according to TCVN 1279: 1993 Green coffee – Packaging, labeling, storage, and transportation.

6.2. Storage and transportation, according to TCVN 6602: 2013 (ISO 8455: 2011). Green coffee – A guide to storage and transport. 

Appendix A

(Regulations)

Disability reference table

Disability name

Definition or characteristics of a disability

BENEFITS

1 Unusual coffee bean related defects

1.1 Human deformities; malformed bean; shell and ear

The coffee bean has an unusual shape that is easily distinguishable

NOTE This category includes:

– Hollow nucleus: malformed nucleus has voids

– ear lobe: malformed human has ear lobe shape

Both are derived from elephant kernels

1.2 Fragment of the kernel (bean fragment)

Fragment of coffee bean with volume less than half of the kernel

1.3 Broken bean

Fragment of a coffee bean with importance equal to or greater than half of the kernel

1.4 Insect-damaged bean

Insects attack coffee beans from the inside or the outside

1.5 Insect-infested bean

The coffee bean contains one or more dead insects or live insects at any stage of development

1.6 Pulper-nipped bean; pulper-cut bean

Coffee beans that are cut or scratched during fresh grinding by wet processing, usually brown or blackish

2 Defects related to visible appearance

2.1 Black bean and partially black bean

Coffee bean whose inside (endosperm) is partially or entirely black

2.2 Black-green bean

Unripe coffee beans, often with a wrinkled surface, dark green or almost black, and a silvery silk skin

2.3 Brown bean (“Perdido”)]

Coffee bean whose inside (endosperm) has a range of colors: from light red-brown, black-brown, yellowish-green to dark reddish-brown and dark brown

Note 1 to entry: When roasted and soaked, there is often an unpleasant sour taste (odor).

Note 2 to entry: This kernel is not to be confused with the mink-skinned (“melado”) kernel, which has a standard green color inside, is manifested on the surface by slight scratches, and does not lose its flavor—brewed coffee.

2.4 Amber bean

The coffee bean is amber-yellow, usually opaque.

2.5 Immature bean; “quaker” bean

Unripe coffee beans, often with wrinkled surface, pale green or silvery green silk skin, cell wall, and internal structure not fully developed

2.6 Waxy bean

Coffee beans have a translucent waxy appearance and range in color from yellow-green to dark red-brown, which becomes the most typical; Cells and nuclear surfaces show degraded fibers

2.7 Spotted bean (blotchy bean; spotted bean)

Coffee beans are bluish, white or sometimes have unusual yellow spots

2.8 Withered bean

Coffee beans are wrinkled and light in weight

2.9 Sponge bean

The coffee bean is very light (that is, when you press your fingernail against the tissue, you can see a mark); They are usually slightly white

2.10 White bean

The coffee bean has a white surface

3 Defects primarily manifest in brewed coffee

3.1 Bean producing stinker or fermented flavors The kernel has a typical appearance but is detectable in brewed coffee (a fermented, sour, foul smell, or rotten fish).

NOTE: When freshly cut or rubbed, the kernel has a very unpleasant smell

3.2 Bean producing other current off-flavors The kernel has a normal appearance, but when mixed, it has an unpleasant taste such as musty, fishy, ​​earthy, woody, Rio, phenol, or jute sacks that can be detected.
* Defects primarily affect the quality of whole roasted coffee beans.

IMPURITIES

4 Defects related to foreign matter

4.1 Stones

Stones of any size were found in a batch of green coffee

4.2 Sticks

Samples of trees and sticks of any size were found in the green coffee lot

4.3 Soil agglomerate

A lump of soil

4.4 Metallic matter

Metal samples were found in the yard after drying the coffee and after the industrial equipment deteriorated

4.5 Foreign matter other than described

Foreign matter such as cigarette samples, plastic fragments, wrappers, lanyard samples

5 Substance-related defects not from the kernel but the coffee fruit

5.1 Bean in parchment (pergamino) Coffee beans with all or part of the husk left
5.2 Piece of parchment (pergamino)] Fragments of dry husks
5.3 Dried cherries (pod)] Dried coffee berries consist of an outer skin and one or more cores
5.4 Husk fragment Fragment of the outer shell has dried

NOTE: they can be divided into small, medium, or large fragments

 

Appendix B

(Regulations)

READY SIZE AND READY SIZE

(According to TCVN 4807: 2001 (ISO 4150: 1991))

Table B.1 – Sieve size and the sieve hole size

sieve size

Sieve hole size (mm)

N° 7

2.80

N° 10

4.00

N° 12

4.75

N° 13

5.00

N° 14

5.60

N° 15

6.00

N° 16

6.30

N° 17

6.70

N° 18

7.10

N° 19

7.50

N° 20

8.00

 

Appendix C

(Refer)

The leading cause of disability

DISABILITIES

REASON

1 Unusual kernel-related disability

1.1 Human deformity

Conventional processing to separate the inner and outer parts of the elephant core (hollow core and ear lobe)

1.2 Fragment of the kernel

Conventional handling; is formed mainly during the operation of the husking and dry milling machine

1.3 Broken kernel

Conventional handling; is formed mainly during the operation of the husking and dry milling machine

1.4 Insects damage humans

Hypothenemus hampei (fruit borer) or Araecerus fasciculatus (coffee bean pest) attack fruit/seeds during storage due to poor storage control.

1.5 Humans infected with insects

Due to Hypothenemus hampei (fruit borer), Araecerus (fruit weevil) attacks seeds during storage due to poor storage control or any other pest.

1.6 Damaged kernel

Improper adjustment of the milling machine technique or the loading of raw materials with green fruits or deformed coffee beans.

2. Defects related to visible appearance

2.1 Black kernel and partial black kernel

Due to the attack of Colletotrichum coffee, mum or other fungi affects the coffee berries/kernels while still on the tree and the ground, making the coffee cherries sick (ulcers).

Other causes could be:

– In the kernel, there is a lack of carbohydrates due to poor farming practices;

– Ripe kernels/fruits are over-fermented by yeasts/molds and then dried.

2.2 Green – black core

Young kernels, affected by high temperature

Young kernels, affected by improper drying of parchment and cherries (field drying or mechanical drying), e.g., high temperature (no microbial growth)

2.3 Brown filling

Brown kernels can be caused by over-processing during fermentation; The cause of the sourdough is not clear.

With “brown” kernels, it is believed that these are ripe kernels that are dying during the drying process and are affected by molds afterward.

Also, overripe fruit may ferment during slow drying due to excessive layering, causing excessive internal temperature rise and death of the endosperm.

It can be caused by the mold randomly fermenting on ripe or young fruit before being dried.

It can also be caused by Antestia or aphid attack on young fruit, either due to overripeness and improper handling of fresh fruit, overripe fruit, or prolonged drying time of ripe fruit.

2.4 Multiply amber

Iron deficiency in the soil

2.5 Young kernels; light green kernel

Caused by picking unripe fruit (i.e., green, yellow skin); Silk shell is silver-green.

2.6 Multiply wax

The kernel from the fruit is picked when overripe (brown pods); The effect of fermenting bacteria on the surface and inside of the fruit

2.7 Spotted kernel

Coffee parchment is improperly dried (e.g., the husk is broken)

2.8 The kernel is withered

Not distinguishable or identifiable, and the cause is unknown

2.9 Sponge white filling

Dehumidification during storage/transport leads to enzyme activity

2.10 White Multiply

The kernel’s surface is discolored due to Coccus strains during storage/transportation related to the coffee of the previous crop.

3 Defects mainly found in brewed coffee

3.1 The kernel has a bad smell The cause is not clear but is related to fermentation and the washing process where some seeds are soaked for too long or in dirty water.

In the same way, stagnant fresh rubbing can cause the kernels to have a foul odor.

3.2 The kernel has lost its smell There are many different reasons

4 Defects related to foreign matter

4.1 Stone Unsatisfactory separation/cleaning
4.2 Pieces of twigs Unsatisfactory separation/cleaning
4.3 Department of Land Unsatisfactory separation/cleaning
4.4 Metallic objects Unsatisfactory separation/cleaning
4.5 Foreign matter other than those described Unsatisfactory separation/cleaning

5 Defects related to impurities not from the kernel but the coffee fruit

5.1 Filled with husks Dry rubbing and separating the husks are not technically correct
5.2 Pieces of rice husks Unsatisfactory separation after drying parchment coffee
5.3 Dried coffee berries Improperly dry grinding, leaving dried coffee berries in the coffee block
5.4 Dried fruit peels Poor separation after dry peeling

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