Coffee Anthracnose: in recent articles, we have introduced to you some primary diseases on coffee trees; today, we will learn about another relatively common condition, which is dry branches and berries on coffee trees (also known as coffee anthracnose): causes, signs, and measures to prevent and treat the disease.
Symptoms of dry branches of coffee berries
- The disease usually affects the fruit bunches and fruit-bearing branches, the green parts of the chlorophyll. On coffee, tea is often more affected than coffee with coffee and jackfruit.
- Initially, the disease appears on the fruit as small yellow or brown spots, then spreads to dark brown, concave. The disease often appears on fruit clusters, burning branches, and young leaves.
- Contiguous positions between fruits in a fruit cluster, where water stagnates after rice rains, fruit stalks, fruit burning, etc., are often affected first, then spread around. Sometime after the fruit bunch, the diseased branches will have the phenomenon of withering, turning black, and always on the tree.
- In addition, if the disease infects young fruit clusters, it will cause young fruit to drop.
The effect of dry branches of coffee berries
The disease is also known as anthracnose on the coffee tree, causing a drop of young fruit, reduced yield, and dead branches, making the tree defective. Profit and growth are significantly reduced if present in a large area or in Coffee gardens built without timely treatment; the disease can cause the trees to deplete and die.
Causes of dry branches of coffee berries
Three main agents cause the disease, but it is mainly caused by a fungus named Colletotrichum Cofeanum Noack. The English name of the illness is Coffee Berry Disease.
This fungal strain causes anthracnose on most crops. Their preferred environment is humid, and the temperature is below 20 degrees Celsius. Therefore, the disease often breaks out in the rainy season, especially after rains in the evening. Spores from the fungus will be spread through rainwater, wind, animals, or by taking care of coffee by relatives (pruning branches, sharing farm tools, etc.)
In some cases, if the surrounding environment is rich in nutrients and favorable for a long time, fungal spores can also germinate and grow at higher temperatures, from 20-35 degrees Celsius.
Some other causes of dry fruit disease:
- Pseudomonas syringea, P. garcae,
- Physiologically dry branches are also known as Die-back disease
Measures to prevent dry branches of coffee berries
a – Cultivation method
- Growing coffee at the right density depending on the variety, for example
- Algae prune tree branches to shade properly and avoid being too dense, especially in the rainy season
- Balance watering to help plants produce fruit and fruit at the right time
- Applying the process of planting and caring for coffee with the right techniques for strong growth and increased resistance to pests and diseases
- Regularly visit young gardens, prune diseased branches, and destroy them early before the disease spreads to other plants
- Do not share or must disinfect agricultural tools when caring for diseased and healthy plants
- Using Trichoderma biological products to kill fungi increase the resistance of plants
b – Chemical method
In addition to the farming methods mentioned above, chemical measures must be carried out in parallel. Certain drugs to treat anthracnose, dry branches, and dried fruit on coffee should use the following active ingredients: Albendazole, Azoxystrobin, Difenoconazole, Carbendazim, Propiconazole, Benomyl + Copperoxychloride…
When spraying, choose a calm, quiet day, and pour at least two times, 7-15 days apart, to increase the effectiveness of the drug. It is recommended to spray the room at the beginning of the rainy season; this is a good time for fungal diseases to develop, not only coffee anthracnose.
Some particular medicine to treat dry branches of coffee fruit
- Dorsal 50 (0.2%)
- Tilt 250 EC (0.1%)
- Vibe-C 50BTN (0.2%)
- Abenix 10FL (0.25 – 0.3%)
- Chevin 5SC
Spray according to the instructions on the package or the teachings of the extension staff.
In summary, although the harmful effects of dry branch disease are pretty severe, they severely affect coffee growers. However, the disease can be prevented and treated if detected in time. People need to take care of their coffee in a reasonable balance, use wide growing varieties, and have good disease resistance; combined with chemical and biological measures, it can be prevented.