Typica – Species Coffee: Typically, along with its “brother”, Bourbon (Coffea Arabica var. Bourbon) is one of the most genetically diverse C. Arabica species and holds an important place in the world coffee industry. According to WCR Arabica Typica is Also known as Criollo (Creole), Indio (in India) or Arábigo (Arabica) or Blue Mountain (in Jamaica), and Sumatra (in Indonesia).
Typica is considered a “pure Arabica” similar to Bourbon, these are coffee varieties that produce a much higher quality of flavour than new varieties, either bred from the original Typica variety or caused by mutations.
What is Typica coffee?
Typica coffee is a type of Arabica, belonging to the purebred Arabica coffee variety. Typica is also the oldest coffee variety in the world and the first coffee strain to be discovered.
Typica coffee tree is quite tall compared to other normal coffee trees, the small branches grow in a cone shape and are inclined at an angle of 60 degrees to the main branch. Their leaves are usually golden-bronze. Typica seeds are oval in shape and quite small in size.
It is said that Typica coffee is the queen of the coffee kingdom. Because in order to grow and take care of this plant, it is necessary to have a suitable climate and soil conditions to get the big and eye-catching coffee fruits as we still see.
Origin and development history of coffee Typica
As the most genetically important coffee in the world, very few people know the true origin of the Typica coffee bean. According to many historical records, the coffee forests of southwestern Ethiopia and Yemen were the places where Typica coffee beans were found (about the 16th century), and then these seeds were sent to India, specifically India. Baba Budan created Malabar coffee plantations at that time.
In 1696 – 1699 the Dutch also came and brought Typica beans to Batavia, in Jakarta – the capital of Indonesia today. But not stopping here, the turning point to place the source of coffee varieties later began at the Amsterdam botanical garden. Specifically in 1706, from the Typica group on the island of Java – Indonesia, a single Typica tree was brought to Amsterdam.
Then in 1714, the peace treaty between Utrecht, the Netherlands and France was signed, and the mayor of Amsterdam gave a coffee tree of this variety to King Louis IV of France, from which this coffee variety began to appear in the world. greenhouse of the Jardin des Plantes and gradually spread later.
The presence of Typica coffee in Vietnam
In the 1875s, the French came to Cau Dat (Da Lat) and set up a number of plantations here to cultivate Typica varieties. At that time in Vietnam, this type of coffee was very expensive, and only the aristocracy and upper class could enjoy it.
But since 2001 because the yield of this type of coffee is very low, the price of coffee has also fallen sharply, and people have started to cut down Typica and replace it with coffee varieties with higher yields.
Then, Typica was gradually “usurped” and no longer has a foothold in the market, people only know it by the name “Moka Cau Dat“. Today, getting pure Typica in Vietnam is quite difficult and the output is extremely limited. But perhaps that’s why this coffee becomes more precious than ever!
Some famous Arabica Typica coffee varieties
Cafe Typica or Bourbon are the world’s first coffee strains. However, nowadays, coffee farms specializing in Typica are rare. And although Typica varieties are mostly native coffee plants with genetic origin from Typica such as Blue Mountain, Kona, Java and Sumatra … but now they are all confused as separate species. Here are some specific species:
Breed Kent from India
After rust appeared to degrade pure Typica, this is the first coffee tree from Typica to be planted to fight this disease. However, many people misunderstand that this variety is derived from the Typica trees grown in East India but in fact, it is grown all over the country. K7 is one of the versions of Kent that is very popular in Kenya.
Kona Coffee Tree (Hawaii)
As one of the most expensive coffees in the world, the Kona variety is the most prized in the world. Because Kona is grown based on the unique (and highly regulated) growing conditions and methods of the Kona region of Hawaii, a very unique variety of “Kona Typica” has been created (a distinct flavour, not a from heredity). With a reputation for quality overshadowing the origins of Typica coffee, Kona coffee is also becoming quite scarce nowadays.
Blue Mountain variety (Jamaica)
Also, a coffee variety originates from Typica, which originates in the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. However, the Jamaica Coffee Industry Commission has overseen the growth and processing of this coffee and “Blue Mountain” is the name that has been certified by the board. Similar to Kona coffee, the Blue Mountain brand is also expensive and eclipses its true Typica “brand”.
Maragogype is a natural mutation of this coffee variety discovered around 1870 in Brazil. This coffee variety has a relatively low yield, everything else on the Maragogype tree is very large: General size, leaves, fruit & seeds. Currently, because of its low yield, it is not widely grown, but because of its rarity and relative quality, it has attracted many people’s interest.
The taste of Arabica Typica
With its distant history and origins along with its genetic characteristics, Typica coffee also has a very different taste compared to other coffee varieties. Accordingly, Typica has an ecstatic fragrance that can seduce anyone who wants to touch it, it is a distinctly luxurious fragrance often associated with fruity, chocolate flavours. In terms of taste, this coffee contains a large amount of malic acid – giving it a sour taste like in an apple.