SL-28 Arabica varieties
One of Africa’s most popular and well-liked coffee kinds. SL-28 was initially cultivated in Kenya in the 1930s, and it quickly spread to other parts of Africa. In terms of qualities, SL-28 is drought resistant. Still, its output is low due to its vulnerability to common coffee tree diseases, mainly when the ripe fruit is red, and the seeds are more significant than typical. The delicious flavor of raspberries is familiar in coffee cups brewed with SL-28.
One of the world’s pure Arabica cultivars with significant cultural and genetic significance. On the other hand, Bourbon is not just an old coffee type but also infrequently bred. Because the tree’s beans are of excellent quality, Bourbon has been used as a benchmark throughout the coffee industry’s history. This variety’s delicate, subtle, and distinct flavor, with a faint sourness and immediately discernible sweetness. When drinking Bourbon coffee, you may detect flavors like vanilla, caramel, apple, pear, oak, cedar, or malt…
In terms of origin, the name Bourbon comes from an island in the Indian Ocean where, in the 1700s, French missionaries carried seeds from Yemen to sow. In terms of natural characteristics, Bourbon has broad leaves, round fruit, and seeds and yields 20-30% more than Typica (although this variety is susceptible to pests and diseases and has poor tolerance). The Bourbon tree is unique because it can yield pink, yellow, or orange berries instead of the red berries found on most other coffee plants.
Blue Mountain coffee
Grown in the same-named mountains in Jamaica (one of the world’s most premium coffee-growing regions), the coffee line is known for its remarkable quality and resilience to fruit fungal diseases. Moreover, Blue Mountain is one of the most expensive and sought-after coffees among coffee enthusiasts. Due to the rarity of this coffee type, the Coffee Industry Board (CIB) must inspect and certify every original bag of coffee before it can be labeled as Blue Mountain.
Blue Mountain’s Typica roots appear to be little known, despite its renowned flavor. Blue Mountain grows best in the highlands, and any change in the environment can drastically alter the taste of the coffee. The flavor of Blue Mountain coffee is described as delicate, rich, and sweet, like cream. This coffee variety has a pretty diverse flavor profile, with a trace of chocolate and a slightly sour note, and nearly no bitterness.
Caturra is a spontaneous mutation of the Bourbon variety with a genetic change that makes the plant shorter than usual. It inherits all of the Bourbon variety’s yield and grain quality advantages. Caturra comes in yellow and red, both of which are low-growing and readily plucked by hand. Colombia, Brazil, and Central America are all home to this variety.
Catimor results from a mix of Timor and Caturra coffee varietals, and it boasts the perfect blend of sweet and acidic flavors. This is one of the most economically valuable coffee trees, with great vitality, rust resistance, and exceptional growth qualities. Catimor looks like a young tea tree with spreading stems and bright crimson foliage. The tree can produce optimum seed quality if placed in a high position.
Catimor is usually divided into three sub-varieties: Catimor T-8667 (coffee variety with short stem but large fruit and seeds); Catimor T-5269 (a hardy plant that grows well at an altitude of 600-900m above sea level with more than 3000mm of rainfall per year); and Catimor T-5175 (a hardy plant that grows well at an altitude of 600-900m above sea level with more than 3000mm of rainfall per year) (high yielding coffee variety, but not adapted to growing conditions in places that are too low or too high).
Catuai, which was created by crossing two coffee kinds, Caturra and Mundo Novo, has a higher yield than Bourbon. Catuai also has a distinctive yellow fruit and a tiny, low tree shape, making it easier to care for. This coffee varietal currently accounts for 50% of the coffee-growing area in Brazil.
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Geisha is a rust-resistant cultivar that thrives in extreme high-altitude environments. Geisha is distinguished by its complex and delicate characteristics, including pure fruit notes and a delicate balance of sweetness and moderate sourness. It’s no surprise that this is the name that always appears at the top of the most expensive coffee brands list.
In Central America, this is a typical example of high-quality coffee. Java is a flavorful cultivar with a moderate output and good resistance to coffee berry disease. The Java strain’s fruits and seeds are elongated morphologically, while the juvenile leaves are bronze colored.
The first coffee type to be created to withstand rust was chosen, albeit it now faces new strains of the disease. Kent is widely produced due to its disease resistance and excellent yield. This, however, is thought to be a tall Typica plant that originated in India. Kent also offers a K7 variant, which is extremely popular in Kenya.
One of the most expensive and high-quality coffee brands. The name of this coffee type comes from the port of Mocha in Yemen, which was the first to bring coffee around the world.
Moka (also known as Mocha) is prized for its unusual sour flavor, characterized by fruity scents combined with mild bitter overtones, a delicate sweet taste, and a faintly greasy flavor derived from the oil on the seeds. However, this type is tenacious since it is challenging to grow and produces a low yield, and it can only be grown at altitudes of 1500 meters or higher.
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In the 1940s, a natural hybrid between Typica and Bourbon was discovered in Brazil. The great height of Mundo Novo is its distinguishing feature. The tree is commonly planted because of its muscular body, disease resistance, and excellent yield. However, to achieve a standard product, the growth time must be greater than for other types.
In 1949, a tiny Bourbon mutant was discovered in El Salvador. Pacas now produces nearly a quarter of all the coffee in the country. In terms of qualities, the Pacas coffee type boasts ripe red fruits and low-growing plants, making harvesting simple. Pacas is also quite popular among coffee drinkers because the quality is comparable to Bourbon.
This hybrid of Pacas and Maragogype benefits the parent plant, such as huge leaves, fruits, and fruits, but it has low pest and disease resistance. Users will notice the remarkable sweetness of fruits, herbs, and incredibly appealing chocolate when drinking Pacamara coffee.
Apart from Bourbon, Typica is one of two classic pure Arabica varietals and is frequently used as a benchmark when evaluating the quality and taste of coffee beans. Typically includes a lot of malic acids, which gives it a sour, apple-like flavor, and it’s quite stimulating to the palate. Naturally, when combined with moderate bitter and sweet notes on the tip of the tongue, it creates a complex and alluring flavor profile.
Typica coffee trees feature copper-yellow foliage and taller, more attractive coffee berries than Bourbon, with a crimson tint when ripe. Despite the exceptional quality of the fruit, Typica has a low yield because of its weak disease resistance and vulnerability to pests such as coffee rust.
When it comes to the origins of Typica, it has traveled a long way before becoming widely disseminated around the world. The Dutch transferred Arabica seeds from Yemen to India in the 17th century and then from India to Java island (Indonesia) to help produce the Typica line. In the 18th century, Typica plants were taken to European research facilities and then spread across the American continent via colonial trade channels.
Villa Sarchi, like Caturra and Pacas, is a natural dwarf mutation of Bourbon. This tree was discovered in Costa Rica in the 1950s and 1960s, and a pedigree was chosen for it (selecting each tree through successive generations). Outside of Costa Rica, however, it is not extensively grown. This plant’s weakness is its frail nature, which makes it vulnerable to most pests and illnesses.
Arabica coffee beans
Although Vietnam produces fewer green arabica coffee beans than robusta coffee beans, the quality is high and capacity is increasing steadily year after year. Vietnam has well-known arabica growing areas that are equivalent to the world’s famous arabica coffee planting areas. Several areas, including Lam Dong province’s Cau Dat, Thua Thien Hue’s A Luoi, Daklak province’s Buon Ma Thuot City, and Son La province’s Chieng Ban, have excellent arabica coffee beans that can be considered specialty coffees or single estate coffees.
Coffee leaf rust
Dispersion of Spores
Wind and rain can both disperse urediniospores (figure 5). It is clear from observing infection patterns on individual leaves and among leaves within the canopy that splashing rain is an important means of local dispersal. Regional patterns of infection, particularly in areas where the fungus was recently introduced, have revealed that long-distance dispersal is primarily by wind. Thrips, flies, wasps, and other insects disperse urediniospores in a small, possibly insignificant, amount. Human intervention is very likely to blame for movement across oceans, deserts, and mountain ranges.
Urediniospores can only germinate in the presence of free water (rain or heavy dew); high humidity is insufficient. Because the entire infection process requires 24 to 48 hours of continuous free moisture, while heavy dew is enough to stimulate urediniospore germination, infection usually occurs only during the rainy season. The seasonal variation in disease incidence is caused primarily by changes in rainfall. There are two peaks in the severity of coffee rust where there are two rainy seasons per year. Infection can occur at a variety of temperatures (minimum 15°C/59°F, optimal 22°C/72°F, and maximum 28°C/82°F). Only stomata on the underside of the leaf are infected.
It takes 10-14 days after infection for new uredinia and urediniospores to form (Figure 4). Over the course of 2 to 3 weeks, the rust lesions enlarge. A single lesion will produce four to six crops of spores, releasing approximately 300,000 urediniospores over a three to five-month period. During favorable weather, secondary cycles of infection occur continuously, and the potential for explosive epidemics is enormous.
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